Facts & Information on Blood Group Types (PDF Version)

Dear Readers,
The most well-known and medically important invention is Blood Group Types. Blood Group was invented by Karl Landsteiner in 1990 at the University of Vienna. In 1930, he belatedly received the Nobel Prize for his discovery of blood types.

In humans, there are four principal types: A, B, AB, and O. There are two antigens and two antibodies that are mostly responsible for the ABO types. The specific combination of these four components determines an individual's type in most cases.

Antigen

In blood of human the glycoprotein which is found in Red Blood Corpuscles called Antigen.
Antigens are of two types – (i) Antigen A and (ii) Antigen B

Antibody

An opposite type of protein is found in blood plasma is called Antibody.
Antibodies are of two types – (i) Antibody A and (ii) Antibody B

The table below shows the possible permutations of antigens and antibodies with the corresponding ABO type ("yes" indicates the presence of a component and "no" indicates its absence in the blood of an individual).

ABO
Blood Type
In Red Blood Corpuscles
In Plasma
Antigen A
Antigen B
Antibody A
Antibody B
A
Yes
No
No
Yes
B
No
Yes
Yes
No
O
No
No
Yes
Yes
AB
Yes
Yes
No
No

In addition to the A and B antigens, there is a third antigen called the Rh factor, which can be either present (+) or absent ( - ). In general, Rh negative blood is given to Rh-negative patients, and Rh positive blood or Rh negative blood may be given to Rh positive patients.

Donating Blood by Compatible Type:

Blood types are very important when a blood transfusion is necessary. In a blood transfusion, a patient must receive a blood type compatible with his or her own blood type. If the blood types are not compatible, red blood cells will clump together, making clots that can block blood vessels and cause death.
If two different blood types are mixed together, the blood cells may begin to clump together in the blood vessels, causing a potentially fatal situation. Therefore, it is important that blood types be matched before blood transfusions take place. In an emergency, type O blood can be given because it is most likely to be accepted by all blood types. However, there is still a risk involved.

Blood Type
Donate Blood To
Receive Blood From
A+
A+ AB+
A+ A- O+ O-
O+
O+ A+ B+ AB+
O+ O-
B+
B+ AB+
B+ B- O+ O-
AB+
AB+
Everyone
A-
A+ A- AB+ AB-
A- O-
O-
Everyone
O-
B-
B+ B- AB+ AB-
B- O-
AB-
AB+ AB-
AB- A- B- O-

Universal Blood Donor and Receiver

i) The Universal Blood Donor is Type O- blood type.
ii) The Universal Blood Receiver is Type AB+ blood type.

Blood Type and Your Personality

Legend has it that blood type tells about personality. In Japan, it's widely believed that blood groups predict personality traits - from temperament to compatibility, to what kind of lover you are to what type of foods you should be eating. For instance:

Blood Type
Your Personality
Type A
Calm and trustworthy
Type B
Creative and excitable
Type AB
Thoughtful and emotional
Type O
Confident leader


Facts & Information on Blood Group Types (PDF Version)


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