GyanGood knowledge of rules of grammar and their correct usage in right perspective,Is the only way of attempting the questions relating to the spotting errors.
Rule 1Some nouns always remain in plural form. They take plural verb. These nouns have no singular form. These are -
Assets, alms, amends, annals, archives, ashes ,arrears, athletics, auspices, species, scissors , trousers, pants. clippers, bellows, gallows, fangs, measles, eyeglasses, goggles, belongings, breeches. Bowels , braces ,binoculars, dregs, earnings, entrails, embers ,fetters, fireworks, longings, lees, odds ,outskirts, particulars, proceeds, proceedings ,riches, remains, shambles, shears, spectacles , surroundings ,tidings ,tactics ,tongs ,vegetables, valuables, wages etc.
Means' — In the sense of income'. Means always takes a plural verb. In the sense way to achieve some end, Means takes a singular verb. When 'a' or 'every' is used before Means', it is singular.
(a) My means were reduced substantially.
(b) Every means is good if the end is good.
Rule 2Some nouns look plural in form but have singular meaning. Such nouns take singular verb. These are: news, innings, politics, summons, physics, economics, ethics. mechanics, mathematics, measles, mumps, rickets, billiards, draughts, etc.
Rule 3Some nouns look singular but have plural meaning. Such nouns take plural verbs. These are: cattle, clergy, cavalry, infantry, poultry,peasantry, children, gentry, police etc.
Rule 4Some nouns are always used in singular . These are uncountable nouns. We should not use article A/An with such nouns. These are -
Scenery, poetry, furniture, advice, information, hair, language. business, mischief, bread, stationery, crockery, luggage, baggage, postage, knowledge, wastage, money, jewellery, breakage etc,
We can not pluralise such nouns by adding `S' or 'es'.
Example It is incorrect to write sceneries, informations, furnitures, hairs.
If hair is used as countable it can be pluralised : e.g., one hair, two hairs.
Example I need three hairs of a black horse.
Rule 5Some nouns have the same form in singular as well as in plural. e.g., deer, fish, crew, family, team, jury, carp, pike, trout, aircraft, counsel ,swine, vermin, etc.
Rule 6Some nouns have plural meaning. If a definite numeral adjective is used before them they are not pluralised. e.g., pair, score. Gross , stone ,hundred, dozen, thousand. million. billion. etc.
Otherwise these nouns can well be pluralised:
Dozens of women, Hundreds of people, Millions of dollars, Scores of shops. Many pairs of shoes, thousands millions etc.
Rule 7If the same noun is repeated after preposition ,the noun will be singular.
(a) Town after town was devastated.
(b) Row upon row of pink marble looks beautiful.
Rule 8If a numeral adjective and a fraction are used with a noun, the noun is used with the numeral and the noun will be in singular.
(a) He gave me one rupee and a half.
(b) She gave me two rupees and a quarter.
Avoid the following structureExamples
(a) He gave me one and a half rupees. (Incorrect).
(b) She gave rite two and a quarter rupees. (Incorrect)
If the numeral adjective and the fraction refer the multiplication, the noun be placed in the end (after the fraction) and it must be plural.
(a) Your deposits has grown two and a half times within two years.
(b) My salary has increased three and a quarter times within three years.
Rule 9Some nouns are known as common gender nouns. They can be used for either sex; Male or Female. These are called dual gender nouns. Such nouns are : teacher, student, child, clerk, candidate. advocate, worker, writer, author, leader, musician, politician, enemy, client, president, person, neighbour etc. When these are used in singular, use third person singular masculine (his) pronoun with them.
(a) Every candidate should write his ( not her) name.
(b) Every person should perform his ( not her) duty.
Each. either, everyone. everybody, no one, nobody, neither, anybody are also common gender pronouns.
Rule 10Some nouns are used for specifically for feminine gender only. i.e., blonde, maid, mid wife, coquette, virgin etc.
Now a days nouns 'bachelor' and 'virgin' are being used for masculine and feminine gender as well .
Use of Apostrophe with 's'(A) You can form the possessive case of a singular noun that does not end in 's' by adding an apostrophe and `s' We should use apostrophe in following situations only
(1) Living things -> Mohan's book
(2) Thing personified; as —> week's holiday
(3) Space time or weight ; as —> a day's leave
(4) Certain dignified objects; as
- The court's orders
- At duty's call
- At his wit's end
- At a stone's throw
(B) You can form the possessive case of a plural noun that does not end in 's' by adding an apostrophe and a 's,' as in the following example.
Example The men's cricket team will play as soon as the women's team is finished.
(C) You can form the possessive case of a plural noun that does end in 's' by adding an apostrophe.
Example The concert was interrupted by the ‘dogs' barking, the ‘ducks' quacking, and the ‘babies' squalling.
(D) Do not use apostrophe with possessive pronouns
i.e., his, hers, yours, mine, ours, its, theirs etc.
Yours faithfully, yours truly, ours garden , his pen, hers purse, theirs room.
(E) Use apostrophe with the last word in following titles.
(a) Governor-general's instructions.
(b) Commander-in-chiefs orders.
(c) My son-in-law's sister.
(d) Ram and Sons's shop.
(F) Do not use 'Double apostrophe'. Avoid double apostrophe in a sentence.
(a) My wife's secretary's mother has expired. (Incorrect)
The mother of my wife's secretary has expired. (Correct)
(G) Apostrophe with 's' is used with; Anybody/ Nobody / Everybody / Somebody / Anyone / Someone / No one / Everyone.
Example Everyone's concern is no one's concern.
If else is used after these words, use apostrophe with else as per following:
Example I can rely on your words, not somebody else's.
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