Syllogism: Important Questions for IBPS PO Mains

Directions (Q. 1-5): In each of the following questions below are given some statements followed by some conclusions. You have to take the given statements to be true if they seem to be at variance with commonly known facts. Read all the conclusions and then decide which one of the given conclusions logically definitely does not follow:

l. Statements: All soils are stones.
Some stones are hills.

All mountains are not clouds.
Conclusions: l) Some soils being clouds is a possibility.
2) Some soils are hills is a possibility.
3) No stone is cloud.
4) All mountains being stones is a possibility.
5) No stone is a soil.

2. Statements:
Some waters are streams.
All streams are canals.
All canals are rivers,
Some streams are ponds.
Conclusions: 
l) All ponds are canals.
2) All canals are pond is a possibility
3) All streams are rivers.
4) All canals are waters is a possibility.
5) All streams are not canals.

3. Statements:
Some trees are forests.
Some forests are animals.
All herbivores are pets.
All animals are not herbivores.
Conclusions: 
1) Some trees are animals.
2) No pet is a herbivore.
3) Some trees are animals is a possibility.
4) All herbivores being trees is a possibility.
5) All forest being animals is a possibility.

4. Statements : 
Some buses are trains.
Some trains are metroes.
Some metroes are smarts.
All smarts are electronic vans.
Conclusions: 
1) No electronic van is a smart.
2) Some metroes are electronic vans.
3) Some trains being electronic vans is a possibility.
4) Some electronic vans are buses is a possibility
5) Some trains are buses.

5. Statements :
All apples are oranges
All apples are not papayas.
Some papayas are guavas.
Some oranges are sweets.
Conclusions:
l) All apples being sweets is a possibility.
2) All guavas are sweets
3) All sweets being guavas is a possibility.
4) Some papayas are not apples.
5) No orange is sweet.

Answer:

1. There is no definite relation between soil and cloud. But the possibility in 1) exists. Hence conclusion l) conclusion 1) follow.
Again, All soil are stones (A) + some stones are hills (I) = A + I = No conclusion. But the possibility in 2) exists and the possibility between mountains and stone also exists. Hence conclusion 4) follows Now, All mountains are not clouds (O) some mountains are not clouds (O). So, we can't say no stone is cloud. Hence 3) may follows. Again, All
soils are stone (A) — conversion some stones are soils (I). Hence 5) does not follow.

2. Some streams are pounds (I) conversion Some pounds are streams (I) + All streams are canals (A) = I+A Some pounds are canals. Thus conclusion l) may follows and possibility in 2) exist. Hence But the conclusion 1) and 2) follow.
Again, All streams are canals (A) + All canals are rivers (A) = A + A = A = All stream are rivers (A). Hence 3) follows. Now, Some waters are streams (I) + All streams are canals (A) = I + A = I = Some waters are canals (I). Thus, possibility in 4) exists. Hence 4) follows. From statements second conclusion 5) does not follow.

3. 2; From statements first and second.
Some trees are forest (I)+ Some forests are animals (I)=I+I = No conclusion. But 1) may follows and possibility in 3) exists. Hence conclusion 1) and 3) follow. Again, all herbivores are pets (A) – conversion – Some pets are herbivores (I). Hence conclusion 2) does not follow. From statements second possibility in 5) exist. Hence 5) follows. And possibility in 4) also follows.

4.1; Some metroes are Smart (I)+ All smart are electronic vans (A)= I+A=I= Some metroes are electronic vans (I). Hence conclusion 2) follows. But from statement four conclusion 2) follows. But from statement four conclusion 1) does not follow. There is no negative statements. So possibility in 3) and 4) exist. Hence conclusion 3) and 4) follow.
Again, conclusion 5) follows from statement first.

5.5; All apples are oranges (A)-conversion – some oranges are apples (I)+ All apples are not papayas (O)-conversion – some apples are not papayas (O)=I+O= No conclusion.
So, the possibilities in 1) and 3)exist. And conclusion 2) and 4) may follow.
Again, conclusion 5) does not follow from statement four.


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