A New Way to learn Grammar and Vocabulary


Are you fed up of cramming grammar rules and still not able to guess the correct answer in exams. So let’s try a new way where we will learn rules by examples as well as learn vocabulary. Sounds tricky? You will get to know about it by reading this article.

1) One of my best friend tried to commit suicide.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Replace friend by friends
  • Why? Because after one of/ some of/ each of / either of/ neither of/ none of/ any of, a plural noun is used.
 Root word, cide- kill
  1. Suicide- kill oneself
  2. Matricide- killing of mother
  3. Fratricide- killing of brother
  4. Uxoricide- killing of wife



2) While her daughters are shy and reserved, her son-in-laws are outgoing and loquacious.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Replace son-in-laws by sons-in-law
  • Why? To make a compound noun plural ‘S’ is added to the main word
  • For e.g.: brothers-in-law, sisters-in-law
  • The possessive case of these compound noun is formed by adding ‘s’ to the last word
E.g. Father-in-law’s car, sister-in-law’s jewellery etc.
  • When two nouns are connected by ‘and’  and are closely connected, add an apostrophe s to the last noun
E.g. Ajay and Kajol’s house (as they live in single house)
  • But, Shahid’s and farah’s house (as they live in different house)
Reserved- slow in revealing their emotions and opinions

  1. Root word - loquor- to speak
  2. Loquacious- talkative
  3. Soliloquy- a speech to oneself
  4. Circumlocution- to speak in a     roundabout manner 

3) The room’s decoration is magnificent.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY

  • Replace room’s decoration by decoration of the room
  • Why? Because (‘s) is not used with non-living things.

  • Root word, Magnus- large, big, great
  • Magnificent- grand or splendid in appearance
  • Magnate- a person of great power or influence
  • Magnum- a large bottle

4) My cousin brother is single because he is a misogynist.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Replace cousin brother with cousin 
  • Why? Cousin itself means son or daughter of an uncle or aunt. Cousin Brother is a superfluous expression. Similarly, instead of family members use ‘the members of the family’
 Root word, misein- to hate, gyne- woman
  • Misanthropist - one who hates mankind (Anthropos- mankind)
  • Misogamist - one who hates marriage(gamos- marriage)
  • Gynecologist - one who treats female disorder.

5) Because my brother is a credulous consumer so he is every salesperson’s dream.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Replace so by comma
  • Why? After ‘because’ the words ‘so/ therefore/ as’ are not used.
 Root word, cred - to believe
  • Credulous - ready to believe
  • Credible - believable
  • Incredible - hard to believe

6) Where is my spectacle?

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY

  • Replace is by are and spectacle by spectacles.
  • Why? Because spectacles is always used in plural form. We can neither make it singular by removing s nor we can use it with singular verb

  •  Root word, specto(or spic)- to look
  •  Spectacles- device used to look clear
  •  Retrospect- looking back
  •  Prospect- looking ahead
  •  Conspicuous- easily seen or looked at; noticeable

NOTE:

1. Noun used only in plural forms: Scissors, tongs, amends, alms, lodgings, fireworks, goggles, spectacles, gallows, trousers, pajamas, pants, auspices, proceeds, regards, riches, savings, surroundings, wages etc.
2. Nouns that appear plural but is always singular: News, innings, politics, summons, physics, economics, billiards, mumps, measles, athletics etc.
3. Nouns that appear singular but is always plural: cattle, cavalry, infantry, police, poultry, children, gentry, people etc.
4. Nouns with same plural and singular forms: deer, sheep, series, species, fish, crew, team, jury, aircraft, counsel etc.

7) He enquired about that neurologist from door to doors.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Replace doors by door.
  • Why? In case of noun-preposition-noun, when both the noun are same that both should be in singular form, e.g. town after town, row upon row, ship after ship etc
  • Root word, neuron- nerve, logos- science or study
  • Neurology- the study of neurons
  • Neuralgia-pain along the nerves and their branches (algos- pain)
  • Neuritis- inflammation of nerves

8) A ten-miles walk alleviates my sadness.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Replace miles by mile.
  • Why? Because hyphenated expressions or compound adjectives can’t take plural form.
  • E.g. a two-hour lecture, two-hundred rupee note etc
  • Root word, levis- light
  • Alleviate- to make something light or less severe as a pain or difficulty
  • Elevate- to raise up(anything light will rise up)
  • Levitate­-to rise
  • Levity- a lighthearted or frivolous act

9) (i) He, you and I are going to attend the calligraphy class.
(ii) You, I and he have made a blunder.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • In (i) interchange the position of he and you, similarly in (ii) interchange the position of you and I.
  • Why? When different pronouns are used in a sentence and there is nothing related to mistake or some bad thing the series is 2nd person-3rd person-1st person but if there is something related to some mistake or bad thing series is 1st person-2nd person-3rd person
  • Root word, graphein- to write
  • Calligraphy- good handwriting (kallos- beauty)
  • Cacography- bad handwriting (kakos- bad or harsh)
  • Graphologist- one who analyses handwriting
  • Blunder- big mistake

NOTE-

subject
Object
Possessive pronoun
First Person
I, we
Me, us
Mine, ours
Second Person
you
you
yours
Third Person
She, he, it, they
Her, him, it, them
Hers, his, theirs

10) Ram and Shyam is chronic liar.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Replace is by are and liar by liars
  • Why? Because when two singular nouns are connected by ‘and’ then plural form of verb is used.
  • If two singular noun are connected by and but before them ‘each’ or ‘every’ is used then singular form of verb is used.
  • If two singular noun are connected by ‘and’ but together form a single unit then singular form of verb is used, for e.g. bread and butter, rice and curry, hammer and sickle etc
  • Root word, chronos- time
  • Anachronism- something or someone out of time, belonging to different era
  • Chronological- correct time order
  • Chronometry- measurement of time
  • Synchronize- to move, happen at the same time or rate

11) You as well as your sister has cacophonous sound.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Replace has by have
  • Why? Because if two nouns or pronouns are connected by ‘as well as, in addition to, besides, like, unlike, with, along with, together with, accompanied by, led by, headed by, governed by, rather than, and not’ then verb is according to the first noun or pronoun. Here verb will be in accordance with ‘you’.
  • Root word, kakos- bad or harsh, phone- sound
  • Cacophony- harsh-sounding word
  • Euphony- pleasant sound
  • Phonetics- science of sounds of language
  • Cacodemon- an evil or malevolent spirit

12) Everybody know that the God is omnipotent.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Replace know by knows
  • Why? Because if the subject of sentence is ‘everybody, somebody, nobody, anybody, someone, no one, everyone, anyone, everything, something, nothing, anything’ then the verb is singular.
  • Root word, omnis- all
  • Omnipotent- all-powerful, an adjective usually applied to God (potents- powerful)
  • Impotent- powerless
  • Omniscient- all knowing i.e infinitely wise
  • Omnipresent- present at all places at once
  • Omnibus- a gathering of all things

13) I, who is a psychologist, love painting too.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Replace is by am
  • Why? When ‘who, which and that’ are used as relative pronouns then the verb depends on the number and person of antecedents.
  • E.g. one of the issues which were discussed in the meeting was raised by me.
  • Here ‘which’ is the relative     pronoun and its antecedent is ‘the issues’    therefore the verb is plural
  • Root word, psyche- spirit, soul or mind
  • Psychologist- one who studies mind or behaviour
  • Psychopathy- mental or emotional disturbance(pathos- disease or suffering)
  • Psychogenic- originating in mind or emotions
  • Psychotherapy- general term for psychological treatment

NOTE:

Use of relative pronouns
‘Who’ is used for persons, which is used for things while that is used for persons as well as things.
After ‘everything, nothing, the only, any, all, everyone, none, no, nobody, much, little, the same, the few, the little’ or superlative degree or all (used for thing) the word ‘that’ is used.
E.g. This is the only pen that I bought yesterday.
He is the most talented man that I have ever seen.
All that glitters is not gold.

14) If I am you, I would have attended the carnival.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Replace am by were
  • Why? Because when we use ‘as if, if, as though, if only, I wish , we wish etc’ to express present unfulfilled wish, condition, desire then ‘were’ is used irrespective of number and person of subject
  • Root word, carnis- flesh
  • Carnelian- a reddish gemstone, the color of red flesh
  • Carnival- the season of merry making
  • Carnage- great destruction of life (i.e of human flesh)
  • Reincarnation- a rebirth or reappearance


15) A misogamist is a person who is hating marriage.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Replace is hating by hates
  • Why? For a universal truth, simple present is used.
  • E.g. A theist is a person who believes in god.
  • Root word, misein- to hate, gamos- marriage
  • Misogamist- one who hates marriage
  • Monogamy- custom of only one marriage
  • Bigamy- unlawfully marrying the other person without divorcing the first one
  • Polygamy- plural marriages

16) A philanthropist is organising a disaster awareness campaign since 2007.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Replace is organising by has been organising
  • Why? Because for present perfect continuous tense the format is:
  • Sub + has/have been+ V1 +ing + object + since/for+ time
  • Root word, Philein- to love, Anthropos- mankind
  • Philanthropist- one who loves mankind
  • Bibliophile- one who loves books
  • Philander- a lover, to make love or flirt
  • Anglophile- one who loves or admires the country, culture or people of England

NOTE:

Since denotes point of time while for denotes period of time.
E.g. since 1911 , for the past 3 years

17) The woman died before the gynecologist came.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Add had before died
  • Why? When we talk about 2 past actions then for the one which took place earlier past perfect is used and for the subsequent simple past is used.
  • We use past perfect with ‘I wish, if, as if, as though’ if it denotes unfulfilled wish, condition or desire of past
  • E.g. I wish I had passed the examination with good marks.
  • Root word, gyne- woman, logos- science or study
  • Gynecologist- one who treats female disorder
  • Cardiologist- one who treats heart problems ( kardia- heart)
  • Gynecide- killing of females especially female infants
  • Gynecocracy- Rule or government by women

NOTE:

If the first action led to occurrence of the other action immediately then simple past tense is used for both the actions.
For e.g. When he opened the gate, they came in.

18) He is senior and more experienced than you.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Add to before and
  • Why? If two adjectives uses different prepositions we need to use those prepositions with the respective adjectives.
  • Words superior, inferior, anterior, posterior, prior, junior, senior, prefer are followed by to
  • Root word, senex- old
  • Senior- older
  • Senile- showing signs of physical and/or mental deterioration generally marks very old age
  • Senescent- aging, growing old
  • Senate- earlier a council of older, now wise individual

NOTE:

After ‘comparatively, relatively’ an adjective of positive degree should be used.
More, most should not be used with ‘excellent, unique, perfect, major, complete, round golden etc’
E.g. He is perfect. (Not more perfect)
The weather is comparatively hot today. (Not comparatively hotter or comparatively hottest)

19) No sooner we read the title of autobiography than he got up and left the room.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Add had after sooner
  • Why? Because the format is:
  • No sooner+ had + subject + V3
  • Or
  • No sooner + did + subject + V1
  • Root word, bios- life
  • Biography- writing about someone’s life
  • Autobiography- story of one’s life written by oneself
  • Biopsy- examination of living tissues
  • Autopsy- medical examination of a corpse

NOTE:

when a sentence begins with ‘seldom, never, hardly, scarcely, barely, neither, never, no sooner’ an auxiliary verb should be used before subject.
E.g. Seldom do I go to watch movies. (Here do is an auxiliary verb)

20) He said that he will not live in this patriarchal society.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Replace will by would
  • Why? If the Reporting verb (said) is in past tense then the Reported speech (he will come) will also be in past tense.
  • Root word, pater/patris-father
  • Patriarch- a venerable, father like old man
  • Patricide- killing of one’s father
  • Paternity- fatherhood
  • Patrimony- an inheritance from one’s father
  • Patronymic- a name formed on the father’s name

21) Had they have anything like my condition; they would have felt doleful and thought of committing suicide.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Replace have by had
  • Why? Because with has, had or have, past participle (V3) is used
  • E.g. He has written a book.
  • Had they had me in their team, I would  have helped them.
  • Root word, doleo- to suffer or grieve
  • Doleful- filled with grief and sadness
  • Dolorous- sorrowful
  • Condole- to suffer or grieve with (synonym of commiserate)
  • Dolour- poetic synonym of grief

22) Neither Rakesh nor I are innocent.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Replace are by am
  • Why? When two subjects are joined by ‘Either… or, Neither…nor, Not only…but also’ then the verb is used in accordance with the subject adjacent to it.
  • Root word, noceo- to injure
  • Innocent- not guilty of crime or injury
  • Noxious- harmful, poisonous
  • Innocuous- Harmless

23) I am very interested in reading about malnutrition.

 GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Replace very by much
  • Why? Because the adjectives such as interested, pleased, satisfied, delighted are used with much but not very
  • The adverb very is used with positive adjectives and much with comparative adjective forms.
  • E.g. He is very clever to understand it.
  • Root word, malus- bad or evil
  • Malnutrition- lack of adequate nourishment
  • Malign- to speak evil about, to defame
  • Malediction- an evil saying i.e. a curse (dico/dictus- to say or tell)
  • Malevolent- wishing evil or harm
  • Maleficent- doing harm or evil (facio/ factus- to do or make)
  • Malefactor- wrongdoer or evildoer or criminal

24) He is quite handsome and voluble.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Replace very by quite
  • Why? The adverb quite should not be used with the adjective handsome.
  • Similarly the adverb ‘as’ is not used after ‘call’ and ‘consider.’
  • E.g. he called me a fool.
  • I consider him my best friend.
  • Root word, Volvo/volutus- to roll
  • Voluble- Fluent talkers, the word seems to roll off their tongues with ease
  • Revolve- roll again or keeping turning round
  • Involve- roll in
  • Evolve- roll out; to unfold or gradually develop

NOTE:

The adverb ‘too much’ is used with noun while ‘much too’ is used with adjectives.
E.g. too much pain or much too painful
Similarly, ‘no less than’ should be used with uncountable nouns while ‘no fewer than’ should be used with countable nouns.

25) None of the two sisters gave a sympathetic response.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Use neither instead of none
  • Why? Because ‘either, neither’ is used for two person/things
  • ‘None, no one, any’ is used for more than two persons/ things
  • E.g. None of the four friends is intelligent.
  •   Either of the two brothers is diligent.
  • Root word, pathos- disease, suffering or feeling
  • Sympathy- sharing or understanding another’s feeling
  • Pathology- study of disease
  • Antipathy- hostility or feeling strong dislike
  • Apathy- Lack of feeling, non-responsiveness
  • Empathy- identification with another’s feelings

NOTE:

Between is used for two persons/things. E.g. between Ram and shyam
‘Among, amid, amidst’ is used for more than two persons/things. E.g. among the winners, amid his friends etc.

26) Who should I invite to visit auditorium?

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Replace who by whom
  • Why? Who refers to the subject of sentence while whom refers to the object of sentence. Who basically works as he while whom as him.
  • E.g. Who is responsible for this?
  •        The receptionist asked me whom I wanted to meet in the office.
  • Root word, arium/ary- place
  • Auditorium- place for public meetings or performances
  • Sanatorium- hospital for chronically ill
  • Aquarium- place where fish are kept
  • Apiary- place where birds are kept
  • Library- place where books are kept

27) After the blissful euphoria of the honeymoon, the husband and wife were having trouble in facing the boring routine of the real world.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Use The before wife.
  • Why? If two singular nouns are joined by ‘and’ but the article is used only with first noun that both the noun represent a single unit, for e.g., The singer and musician represents a single person. If we write The singer and the musician, then it represents two separate persons.
  • Root word, eu- good
  • Euphoria- good feeling, a sense of mental Peace and physical well being
  • Euphony- good sound
  • Eulogy- a formal speech of praise
  • Euthanasia- etymologically good death i.e. painless death
  • Euphemism- substituting offensive words

28) I never wrote the script despite of her urge to do so.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Remove of
  • Why? Because despite itself means ‘in spite of’ so there is no need of using ‘of’ after despite
  • Similarly await itself means wait for, dispose of means sell away and came across means meet someone accidently or suddenly.
  • So never use await for or dispose off or suddenly came across.
  • Root word, scibo/scriptus- to write
  • Script- a written document
  • Scribble- to write or draw carelessly and in a hurry
  • Describe- to represent in words or writing
  • Scriptures- holy writings
  • Manuscript- handwritten
  • Inscribe- to write or cut words onto something
  • Postscript- something written after the main part is finished
                                                   

29) The jury was unanimous in their decision, weren’t they?

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Replace weren’t they by wasn’t it
  • Why? Collective noun is used in singular for so its question tag should also have singular verb and singular pronoun.
  • If there is a dispute between collective noun or we talk about individual member of collective noun then plural verb and plural pronoun is used
  • E.g. The audience have taken their seats, haven’t they?
  • Root word, animus- mind
  • Unanimous- of one mind
  • Equanimity- evenness or calmness of mind; composure
  • Pusillanimity- petty mindedness
  • Animosity- anger, resentment, hatred
  • Magnanimous- great, noble minds or souls; quality of forgiving easily

NOTE:

In question tag after negative sentences, ordinary interrogative form should be used while for the positive sentences, negative interrogative should be used.
E.g. They have not told him the news, have they?
I am a student, Aren’t I?  [there is no contacted form of am not so in question tag aren’t is used]
                                                        

30) Susanna was falsely accused with lecherous voyeurs.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Use by instead of with
  • Why? Because correct expression is accused of and charged with
  • E.g. She was charged with/ accused of murder.
  • Libidinous, lascivious, lecherous, lubricious, licentious, lewd , lustful means ‘sexually curious or longing’

31) He wanted to go to home as he was sick and urgently needed his vitamin tablets.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • To should not be used before home.
  • Why? Because the correct format is:
  • ‘come/ go / return /send somebody/ take   somebody + home’
  • Root word, vita- life
  • Vitamin- one of the many nutritional elements on which life is dependent
  • Vital- essential to life
  • Revitalize- to bring renewed life or vigour to

32) He asked me what did I say about his miserable condition.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Replace ‘did I say’ by ‘I said’
  • Why? Because in reported speech, question form is not used.
  • Root word, miser- wretched, heartbroken, worthless
  • Miserable- depressed, despondent
  • Miserly- stingy, tight-fisted

33) Many a soldier have met their death in these subsequent battles.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Use has instead of have and his instead of their
  • Why? If  ‘Many a/an + singular noun’ is used as a subject then singular pronoun and singular verb is used,
  • Root word, sequor- to follow
  • Subsequent- following, successive
  • Obsequies- burial ceremonies or funeral rites where mourners follow after the corpse
  • Sequel- follow-up
  • Sequence- series, succession 

34) After smoking, my all friends wore bovine expressions on their faces.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Use ‘all my’ instead of ‘my all’
  • Why? Because possessive case can only be used after ‘all’ and ‘both’
  • Bovine- cow like
  • Leonine- lion like
  • Canine- like a dog
  • Feline- catlike
  • Porcine- pig like
  • Vulpine- fox like; shrewd person
  • Ursine- bear like
  • Lupine- wolf like
  • Equine- horse like
  • Piscine- fish like

35) Carl was a convivial party host who made everyone at the home.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Remove the
  • Why? Because article (a, an, the) is not used with some phrases such as: to lose heart, to set foot, to give ear, at home, last but not least, to catch fire, in hand, set on fire, at last, by mistake etc.
  • Root word, vivo- to live
  • Convivial- pleasant, friendly
  • Vivacious- vibrant, lively
  • Vivid- possessing the freshness of life; strong; sharp
  • Revive- bring back to life
  • Vivisection- operating on a live animal
  • Viviparous- producing live babies
  • Joie de vivre- joy of living
  • Bon vivant- someone who lives luxuriously

36) The preamble of the international health organization gives a information about the group’s purpose.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Either remove ‘a’ or add piece of after ‘a’
  • Why? Because before uncountable nouns a/an is not used. For e.g. advice, business, mischief, baggage, luggage, news, stationary, postage, poetry, information, music, knowledge, jewellery, work, evidence, wastage, money etc
  • These uncountable nouns can be made countable by adding some phrases such as a piece of advice, a slice of bread etc.
  • Root word, Ambulo- to walk
  • Preamble- etymologically walks before i.e. introduction
  • Amble- walk aimlessly
  • Ambulatory- now able to walk though previously bedridden
  • Perambulator- a baby carriage, a vehicle for walking an infant through the streets
  • Somnambulist- sleep walker

37) You are most egocentric person of the town.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Use the before most
  • Why? Because before superlative degree ‘the’ is used.
  • Root word, ego- one’s concept of oneself
  • Egocentric- utterly involved with oneself; self-centered
  • Egomaniac- excessively, morbidly obsessed with one’s own needs, desires or ambitions

38) Being a rainy day, I had to make alternative arrangements.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Use it before being
  • Why? Because being is used as a participle here and every participle needs a subject so we need to use it before being.
  • Root word, alter- other
  • Alternative- substitute, another
  • Altruist- concerned about welfare of others
  • Alteration- change, modification
  • Altercation- verbal dispute
  • Alter ego- one’s other self

39) The dermatologist at Max hospital offers services to the patients between 4 p.m. to 5 p.m.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Use and instead of to
  • Why? Conjunctions should be used with correct pair.
  • For e.g.
  • though/ although….yet,
  • no sooner….than,
  • hardly/ scarcely….when or before,
  • lest…should,
  • too….should,
  • so…that,
  • from…to,
  • whether…..or,
  • the same….that,
  • both….and,
  • such….that etc
  • Root word, derma- skin, logos- science or study
  • Dermatologist- one who treats skin diseases
  • Epidermis- outermost layer of skin
  • Taxidermy- prepares, stuffs and mounts the skins of animals
  • Pachyderm- thick skin animal
  • Dermatitis- inflammation of skin

NOTE:

adverb ‘not’ and connective ‘till, unless, lest, until’ should not be used in the same clause.
E.g. Work hard lest you should not succeed. (Remove not from this sentence)

40) My father asked me if I had sufficient enough knowledge about claustrophobia.

GRAMMAR
VOCABULARY
  • Either use sufficient or enough
  • Why? Because both have same meaning and using both of them at the same place to serve the same purpose is of no use.
  • Root word, phobia- morbid dread or fear
  • Claustrophobia- fear of enclosed places
  • Agoraphobia- fear of open spaces
  • Acrophobia- fear of height
  • Chromophobia- fear of colours
  • Androphobia- fear of males
  • Xenophobia- fear of foreigners

NOTE: Some superfluous expressions/ slangs
Commonly used 
 Correct use
Freeship, Lecturership 
free studentship, lectureship
Return back, reimburse back, recede back  
return, reimburse, recede
Equally as good as 
equally/ as good as
Coward man 
coward
With bag and baggage
bag and baggage
Reason because
reason why/ reason that
During the period of war
during the war
Suppose if 
suppose/ if
Final conclusion
conclusion
Funeral service
funeral
Mutual agreement
agreement
Investigate into
investigate
An English teacher
a teacher of English
(Means a teacher who is a English man) 
(Means a teacher who teaches English)
Passing marks
pass marks
Linking language/linking road
link language/link road
    
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