Different Governing Bodies With Respect To Polity

We have seen some questions regarding which type of body this institution is? To answer such questions it is better to know the classifications of bodies and some important institutions under them. This article is very much beneficial for the NABARD examination.

1. Constitutional Bodies

Constitutional Bodies are formed by the Constitution which helps the Government to run properly. Each of these permanent or semi-permanent organisations is responsible for the administration of specific functions. Some additional bodies help them by providing advisory functions.

Example: 
Election Commission of India, Union Public Service Commission, Staff Selection Commission, Law Commission of India, Finance Commission, National Commission For SCs, National Commission For STs, Attorney General of India, Advocate General of State, Comptroller and Auditor General of India, Special For Linguistic Minorities, State Public Service Commission, Joint State Public Service Commission, etc.

2. Non-Constitutional Bodies:

The non-constitutional body which does not find its name in the Constitution of India. Hence, it cannot derive power from the Constitution of India. Statutory body can also be called as a non-constitutional body
Example:
The National Institution for Transforming India (NITI AAYOG), National Development Council, The Central Bureau Investigation, National Advisory Council, LOKPAL, LOKAYUKTAS, etc.

3. Statutory Bodies

A statutory authority is a body set up by law which is authorised to enforce legislation on behalf of the relevant country or state. They are typically found in countries which are governed by British style of parliamentary democracy but are also found elsewhere like India, Australia, and New Zeeland. The goals and objectives of a statutory authority are typically set out in the Originating act or in subsequent governmental guidance or instruction
Example: 
Planning Commission of India, National Human Right Commission (NHRC), Central Information Commission (CIC), National Green Tribunal, Armed Force Tribunal, Central Vigilance Commission (CVC), National Commission For Women, National Commission For Minorities, National Commission For Backwards Classes, University Grant Commission, etc.

4. Autonomous Bodies 

The term "autonomous body " denotes a self-governing body, independent, or subject to its own laws. If autonomous body or institution is a company, it is regulated by the company law. If it is a society, it is governed by the law on registration of societies. But in both the cases, its own board of directors can specify the rules of business for the body/institution.
Example: 
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Agricultural Scientists Recruitment Board (ASRB), Aligarh Muslim University (AMU), All India Institutes of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Central Power Research Institute (CPRI), National Institute of Ayurveda, National Institute of Design, National School of Drama, National Skill Development Agency, National Monuments Authority, National Productivity Council, National Institute of Nutrition, National Institute of Rural Development, National Institute of Ocean Technology, National Centre for Trade Information, National Clean Development Mechanism Authority, National Culture Fund, Jamia Milia Islamia, etc.

5. Regulatory Bodies

These bodies are either public authority or government agency. These are accountable for exercising autonomous authority over some are of human activity in a regulatory or supervisory capacity.
Example: 
Press Council of India, Reserve Bank of India, Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI), Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA), Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI), Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), Advertising Standards Council of India, Competition Commission of India, Biodiversity Authority of India, Directorate General of Civil Aviation, Forward Markets Commission, Inland Waterways Authority of India, Telecom Disputes Settlement and Appellate Tribunal, Central Pollution Control Board, Financial Stability and Development Council, Medical Council of India, etc.

6. Quasi-Judicial Bodies:

Quasi-judicial body are those institutions, usually in the form of tribunals which owe their creation to a statute which provides for their establishment. They perform some but not all judicial function.
Example: 
Banking Ombudsman, Insurance Ombudsman, Income Tax Ombudsman, State Sales Tax Appellate Tribunal, Central Information Commission, District Consumer Disputes Redressal Forum, State Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission, State Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission, Railway Claims Tribunal, Intellectual Property Appellate Tribunal, etc.

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