Vocabulary From Economic Times: 8 July 2017

1. Speculate: अंदाज़ लगाना 

Form a theory or conjecture about a subject without firm evidence, conjecture, theorize, hypothesize, postulate, guess
Example: Some speculate that the goods and services tax (GST) has been India’s biggest piece of economic reform.

2. Spectrum: वर्णक्रम 

Used to classify something in terms of its position on a scale between two extreme points, alphabetic order, Alphabetical order, coloration
Example: In fact, it has been the most complex reform to achieve: it called for the Constitution’s division of the tax base between the Centre and the states to be amended, calling for virtual political consensus across the federal divide and the political spectrum.

3. Ubiquitous: सर्वव्यापक 

Universal, present, appearing, found everywhere, omnipresent
Example: It takes ubiquitous computing and broadband access for granted.

4. Reconcile: समाधान करना/मेल-मिलाप कराना 

Make (one account) consistent with another, especially by allowing for transactions begun but not yet completed, adjust, conciliate, resolve
Example: Invoices and returns have to be uploaded to the GST Network, where software will reconcile taxes paid on inputs with claims for credit for such taxes or reject them or even penalise them.

5. Insularity: संकीर्णता 

Promiscuity, narrowness, parochialism, provincialism, localism
Example: The reforms that made this possible go back to the decision to set up institutions of excellence in higher education in the 1950s and 1960, and to break the insularity of a protected economy in the 1980s and bring in computers.

6. Shackle: बेड़ी 

Irons, shackles, fetter, chain, handcuffs, manacles
Example: The liberalisation of 1991, unleashing long dormant animal spirits, the subsequent introduction of private enterprise into telecom services and the gradual removal of shackles on its expansion built the communications network GST rides on.

7. Baulk: बाधा डालना 

hesitate or be unwilling to accept an idea or undertaking, interrupt, impede, hamper, trammel, resist
Example: If the states had not implemented the value-added tax, they would have baulked at GST.

8. Banish: छुटकारा 

Get rid of, dispel, dismiss, dispense, dissipate, eliminate, dislodge, quell
Example: India has a long way to go, before poverty and ignorance and disease are banished and people set free to realise their potential.

9. Innuendo: व्यंग्य 

Satire, blandness, taunt, slur
Example: The power of social media extends to politics, where individuals and organisations use rumour, innuendo and abuse to malign rivals.

10. Proliferate: संख्या में बढ़ना 

Increase rapidly in number, multiply, grow rapidly, mushroom, run riot, become more numerous
Example: As mobile internet spreads, fake news, abuse and hate speech proliferate.

11. Rampant: अनियंत्रित 

Flourishing or spreading unchecked, unruly, unlimited, headlong, madcap, uncontrolled, unrestrained, unbridled, epidemic
Example: Islamophobia is rampant.

12. Anti-Semitism: यहूदी विरोधी भावना 

Hostility to or prejudice against Jews
Example: Several nations are falling back on anti-Semitism.

13. Semiotic: लाक्षणिक 

The study of signs and symbols and their use or interpretation
Example: To curb this, it will require algorithms that respond to semiotic and contextual aspects of posts.

14. Ransack: खोजना 

Search thoroughly, especially in such a way as to cause harm, search, search for, discover, retrace, explore, loot
Example: It did capture the bear standing on its rear legs and opening the refrigerator to ransack its shelves.

15. Prowl: तलाशी करना 

Move about restlessly and stealthily, especially in search of prey, sneak, sidle, stalk, creep
Example: He prowled around her garage.

16. Porridge: दलिया 

A dish consisting of oatmeal or another meal or cereal boiled in water or milk, gruel, burgoo, daliya, pottage
Example: She ate the porridge.

17. Restitution: पुनरागमन/ बहाली 

Return, recurrence, comeback, home-coming, restoration, recovery
Example: Now, we are firmly on the human ground: the moral dilemma of restitution for past crimes.

18. Grin: मुसकान 

Smile broadly, grin, smile, smirk, beam
Example: Grin and bear it, would have been a better response than shooting the bear dead.

19. Effusive: अलंकारपूर्ण/ जोशीला 

Showing or expressing gratitude, pleasure, or approval in an unrestrained or heartfelt manner, gushing, gushy, extravagant, enthusiastic, exuberant
Example: Netanyahu proclaimed effusively that this relationship was a “marriage made in heaven” but being implemented here on earth.

20. Pique: खफा 

Feel irritated or resentful, annoy, bother, vex, displease, exasperate, affront
Example: We never asked for one, a piqued India has responded.

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