How to Use Gerunds For Error Spotting

Gerunds For Error Spotting

What Is the Meaning of Gerund?

A verb which has ing in it but we use that verb as a noun is a gerund i.e. walking, sleeping, playing etc.

EX:

· He likes drinking soft-drinks.

· He hates borrowing money.
· He began playing cricket. 

Note:

In the 1st example, we have drinking, gerund but it is used as an object of likes which is a transitive verb so we’ll call it a noun. On the other hand soft-drinks is an object of drinking so it is a verb.
In the 2nd example, we have borrowing, gerund but it is used as an object of hates which is a transitive verb so we’ll call it a noun. On the other hand, money is an object of borrowing so it is a verb.
In these examples we use drinking, borrowing and playing as a noun so these words are gerund but we all know that these are the ing form of verb. So when an ing form of verb is used in a sentence as a noun it’s called gerund. 

Rules:

We use gerund as a subject of noun of any verb: 

  • Drinking alcohol is not good for health. (√) 
  • Saving is better than spending. (√) 
  • He gave up trying. (√) 

We use gerund as a noun of any verb’s object: 

Ex: 
  • He likes drinking soft-drinks. (√) (use of gerund as a noun) 
  • He likes to drink soft-drinks. (√) (Use of infinitive with to with transitive verb) 
In the 1st example, we have drinking, gerund but it is used as an object of likes which is a transitive verb so we’ll call it a noun. On the other hand, soft-drinks is an object of drinking so it is a verb. 

We use gerund after the possessive: 

Sometimes we use gerund after the possessive case i.e. 
  • We appreciate you taking the time to meet us. (×) 
  • We appreciate your taking the time to meet us. (√) 
In this example, it should be you’re the possessive case of you because this is an imp. Rule of gerund in which we have to use gerund after possessive case.
In the given example a student can’t see the error easily because we always forget this rule because every sentence of this type looks correct.

We use gerund after some special preposition: 

From, before, after, at, in, on, by, without, for, to and besides if we don’t use gerund after these prepositions, there will be an error in our sentence so we must remember this rule in our exam.
Ex:
  • We were hopeful of win the match. (×) 
  • We were hopeful of winning the match. (√) 
  • After taken the lunch, he went from there. (×) 
  • After taking the lunch, he went from there. (√) 
In the given sentence (2nd) we have a word after and we all know that this is a word for duration and we use this in a perfect sentence but in the given sentence we will use this with gerund because it is used as a preposition in this sentence. 

We use gerund after some special words: 

Allow, permit, forbid, advice after these words we’ll use a gerund. These are those common words that can use either a gerund or an infinitive with it.
  • He allowed his son to enter the room. (√) 
  • He did not allow playing in the ground. (√) 
In the 1st sentence we are using an infinitive with to with allow and on the other hand, we are using a gerund with allow so we must know that when we should use an infinitive or when we should use a gerund.
When we have an object in our sentence we use infinitive with to with these words and when we don’t have an object we use gerund with these words.
  • My father advised me to read a novel daily. (√) 
  • My father advised reading a novel. (√) 

We use an adjective before the gerund:

Some special words:
Take =taking
Buy = buying
Love = loving

We can use these words in a sentence as a noun and adjective also. And we have used it in our 1st rule as a noun and now we are using it as a gerund:
It becomes gerund when we use an adjective to modify a noun i.e.
He is a very loving boy. (√)
In this sentence we have an adjective very which is modify our noun so we’ll call it a gerund.
  • We use gerund as an object of any preposition: 
For explaining this rule here are two sentences in which the first sentence use a preposition + gerund and in the other sentence, we use infinitive with to.
  • Mahatma Gandhi devoted his life to helping the poor. (√) 
  • Mahatma Gandhi devoted his life to the poor. (√) 
Now in the 1st sentence we, use to as a preposition while in the 2nd sentence we use to as an infinitive with to so we can understand that when we have a noun aft (to) it’s a gerund. 

We use gerund after some special verbs:

Appreciate, admit, avoid, deny, delay, dislike, enjoy, escape, excuse, forgive, propose, suggest are those verbs which take gerund with themselves.
Ex:
  • He proposed going to the movie. (√) 
  • He postponed coming to the dinner. (√) 
  • My mother enjoys cooking food. (√) 



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