World Migration Report

World Migration report
World Migration report is released by International Organisation for Migration, which is the United Nations migration agency. IOM’s first World Migration Report (WMR) was published in 2000, initially as a one-off publication designed to increase the understanding of migration by policymakers and the general public. Till now it publisher 9 reports. They are

  • World Migration Report 2000 
  • World Migration Report 2003: Managing Migration – Challenges and Responses for People on the Move 
  • World Migration Report 2005: Costs and Benefits of International Migration 
  • World Migration Report 2008: Managing Labour Mobility in the Evolving Global Economy 
  • World Migration Report 2010: The Future of Migration: Building Capacities for Change 
  • World Migration Report 2011: Communicating Effectively with Migration World 
  • Migration Report 2013: Migrant Well-Being and Development 
  • World Migration Report 2015: Migrants and Cities: New Partnerships to Manage Mobility 
  • World Migration Report 2018 
Recently, IOM released World Migration report 2018.

Why the report is important?

  • The UN said the study of international migration is important as it shows how population grows in many parts of the world. It also contributes to reversing the population decline in some countries. 
  • As per the report International migration is a critical concern for the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development 
  • The report uses the migration term in a broader sense and takes into account anyone living in a country other their own. It also includes refugees and economic migrants, those who immigrate officially and who do so "irregularly 

Some of the key highlights of the report are

  • Globally, 3.4 percent of the population consists of international migrants, meaning someone who lives in a country other than the country where they were born 
  • The total percentage of male immigrants in 2015 was 52 percent, while females accounted for 48 percent. 
  • Across the world, there are an estimated 258 million people who live in a country other than their country of birth – an increase of 49% since 2000. As much as 64% of them live in high-income countries. 
  • The Indian diaspora is the largest in the world 
  • Asia and Europe (31 percent each) were the biggest sources of migrants. 
  • 1 in every 30 people was an international migrant. 
  • Migration contributed 42 percent of the population growth in Northern America and 31 percent in Oceania between 2000 and 2015, 
  • In Europe, the size of the total population would have declined during the period 2000-2015 in the absence of migration. 
  • The United States of America remained the top destination for migrants in the world. 
  • A disturbing fact is that those under 18 years of age made up 51 percent of refugees in 2016. 

The top destination for migrants:

Rank
Country
1 USA
2 Germany
3 Russia
4 Saudi Arabia
5 United Kingdom
6 The United Arab Emirates
7 Canada
8 France
9 Australia
10 Spain

World Migration report & India:

  • According to the World Migration Report 2018 published by the IMO 
  • Indian diaspora is the largest in the world, 
  • As of 2017, 17 million Indians live outside the country, of these, at least 5 million live in the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia and 2 million in the United States of America. 
  • As largest number of migrants abroad are from India, India receives the highest amount of remittances ($68.91 billion). 
  • The largest migration corridor is from India to UAE, where 3.5 million Indians were residing in 2015. 
  • The Indian diaspora constitutes 6% of the total number of international migrants (people living outside the country of their birth), which was estimated at 243 million 
  • The United Arab Emirates has the largest number of Indian migrants, who number 3.31 million, up from 978,992 in 2000, followed by the US with 2.3 million, up from 1.04 million 
  • The number of the migrant from other countries living in India is 5.2 million, a fall of 1.22 million from 2000. 

World’s largest Diasporas:

In 2017, India was the largest country of origin of international migrants at 17 million, followed by Mexico at 13 million. Other countries of origin with large migrant populations include the Russia at 11 million, China at 10 million, Bangladesh at 7 million, Syria at 7 million and Pakistan and Ukraine at 6 million each.
Rank
Country
1 India
2 Mexico
3 Russia
4 China
5 Bangladesh
6 Pakistan
7 Ukraine
8 Philippines
9 Syria
10 Unite Kingdom

Top countries spending remittances:

Remittances are financial or in-kind transfers made by migrants directly to families or communities in their countries of origin. In 2016, India, China, Philippines, Mexico and Pakistan were (in descending order) the top five remittance recipient countries, although China and India were well above the rest, with total inward remittances exceeding USD 60 billion for each country
  • USA 
  • Saudi Arabia 
  • Switzerland 
  • China 
  • Russian Federation 

Refugees and asylum seekers

  • By the end of 2016, there were a total of 22.5 million refugees, with 17.2 million under UNHCR’s mandate and 5.3 million refugees registered by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East. 
  • The total number of refugees is the highest on record, although the annual rate of growth has slowed since 2012. There were also 2.8 million people seeking international protection and awaiting determination of their refugee status, referred to as asylum seekers. Of the roughly 2 million first-instance applications for asylum lodged in 2016, Germany remained the top recipient, with over 720,000 applications, followed by the United States (262,000) and Italy (123,000) 

Other information:

1. IOM:

  • International Organisation for Migration is a united agency related to migration issues 
  • It was established in 1951 as Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM) to help resettle people 
  • IOM works in four broad areas of migration management: Migration and development, Facilitating migration, regulating migration and Forced Migration. 
  • It has 166 member states, a further 8 states holding observer status and offices in over 100 countries, It has more 

Model Questions:


1. Which of the following organisation publishes World Migration report?
a.
International Organisation for Migration
b. World Health Organisation
c. UNESCO
d. World Trade Organisation

2. Which country spends most of remittances?
a.
USA
b. Saudi Arabia
c. India
d. Russia

3. Which country is the largest receptor of remittances?
a.
India
b. China
c. USA
d. UK

4. Among the following which is the largest migration corridor?
a.
India to USA
b. India to UAE
c. India to UK
d. India to Russia

5. Which country’s diaspora is the largest in the world?
a.
India
b. Australia
c. USA
d. UK


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