10 Important Rules of verb

Verb which is independent of number, a person of subject and tense of the sentence are called Non- finite.
Non-finites are of following types:
  1. Participle
  2. Infinitive 
  3. Gerund 

Participle

Participle is of following types:
  • Present participle: weeping, roaming, playing, writing, being done, being played, being lifted etc. 
  • Past participle: written, played, broken etc. 
  • Perfect participle: having seen, having finished, having played etc. 

Infinitive:

  • The form “to+ verb” is called is infinitive. It works as a noun, adjective and adverb. 
  • Example: to see, to go, to eat, to learn etc. 

Gerund:

  • The form “verb + ing” is called Gerund. 
  • Example: weeping, jumping, walking, watching etc. 

Rules to be followed for correct use of Non-finites:

Rule: 1.

Present participle is used with verb of sensation: feel, see, hear, smell etc.

Example:

  • He saw me carried cycle.(incorrect) 
  • He saw me carrying cycle. (correct) 
  • Teacher found Ram weep. (incorrect) 
  • Teacher found Ram weeping.(correct) 

Rule: 2.

Present participle is used if a subject performs one action after other.

Example:

  • Wearing his shirt he came out of home.( correct) 
  • Seen helicopter children came out of the class.(incorrect) 
  • Seeing helicopter children came out of the class. (correct) 


Rule: 3.

Rule: Present participle is used when subject performs simultaneously two tasks.

Example:

  • Prime minister came out laughed. (incorrect) 
  • Prime minister came out laughing.( correct) 

Rule: 4.

Past participle is used as adjective.

Example:

  • He is player of defeating team.(incorrect) 
  • He is player of defeated team.(correct) 

Rule: 5.

Past participle is used to express a problem.

Example:

  • Being misguided he could not pass any bank exam. 
  • Being thirsty Ram requested a glass of water. 

Rule: 6.

Perfect participle is used when the first task has been finished before starting the second task.

Example:

  • Having played cricket, Ram slept. 
  • Having seen the film, Ajay refused to see again. 

Rule: 7.

Direct infinitive (without “to”) is used after the following verbs: see, hear, let, make, etc.

Example:

  • Ajay heard Ram to singing a song.(incorrect) 
  • Ajay heard Ram singing a song.( correct) 
  • Let the student to play in the playground.(incorrect) 
  • Let the student play in the playground.(correct) 
  • Teacher made student to write an essay. (incorrect) 
  • Teacher made student write an essay.(correct) 

Rule: 8.

Infinitive (to+verb) is used after following verbs: Prefer, Wish, Decide, Want, Choose, Appear, Forget, Continue etc.

Example:

  • Ram promised giving me money.(incorrect) 
  • Ram promised to give me money.(correct) 
  • I have decided leave job.(incorrect) 
  • I have decided to leave job.(correct) 
  • She prefers coffee than tea.(incorrect) 
  • She prefers coffee to tea. (correct) 
  • Geeta wishes be rich.(incorrect) 
  • Geeta wishes to be rich.( correct) 
  • I want go London in the winter vacation.(incorrect) 
  • I want to go London in the winter vacation.( correct) 

Rule: 9.

Verb is put in the gerund form (verb+ ing) after possessive case.
Possessive case: my, your, her, our etc.

Example:

  • Teacher did not mind his come late in the class.( incorrect) 
  • Teacher did not mind his coming late in the class.(correct) 
  • Ram appreciates Rohan’s sing.(incorrect) 
  • Ram appreciates Rohan’s singing.(correct) 
  • We like your driving in the traffic.( incorrect) 
  • We like your driving in the traffic.( correct) 

Rule: 10.

Gerund (verb+ing ) is used after following verbs: Deny, Enjoy, Mind, Avoid, Stop, Admit etc.

Example:

  • The thief denied steal necklace.( incorrect) 
  • The thief denied stealing necklace.(correct) 
  • The Director avoided to meet manager.(incorrect) 
  • The director avoided meeting manager.(correct) 
  • Ram stopped run fast on the track in the second lap.( incorrect) 
  • Ram stopped running fast on the track in the second lap.( correct) 


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