Reserve Bank of India - Functions and Powers

RBI (Reserve Bank of India) is an apex financial institution as we know. RBI is Central Bank of India. Lets know about its functions.
functions of rbi

Functions of RBI can be classified into following categories:
a) Traditional functions
b) Development functions
c) Supervisory functions

(A) TRADITIONAL FUNCTIONS OF RBI

1. Issue of Currency Notes
As per the provisions of the Section 22 of the Reserve Bank of India Act 1934 the RBI has sole right or authority to issue currency notes except one rupee note and coins of smaller denomination. RBI can exchange these currency notes for other denominations.  RBI issues these currency notes ( 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500, 1000) against the security of gold bullion, foreign securities, rupee coins, exchange bills, promissory notes and government of India bonds etc. 

2. Banker to other Banks
RBI also guide, help and direct other commercial banks in the country.RBI can control the volume of bank reserves. Every commercial bank has to maintain a part of their reserves with Its parent (RBI). If bank need fund they approach to RBI for fund, that is called Lender of the Last Resort.

3. Banter to The Government
RBI works as an agent of the central and state governments. On the behalf of government it makes payments, taxes and deposits etc. It also represent the government at international level also. It maintains government accounts and provide financial advice to the government. It also manages government public debts and maintains foreign exchange reserves on behalf of the government. RBI also provides overdraft facility to the government in case of financial shortage.

4. Exchange Rate Management
For maintenance of the external value of rupee, RBI prepares domestic policies. Also it need to prepare and implement the foreign exchange rate policy which will help in attaining the exchange rate stability. For maintenance of exchange rate stability it has to bring demand and supply of foreign currency (U.S.) dollar close to each other.

5. Credit Control Function
Commercial banks creates credit according to demand in the economy. But if this credit creation is unchecked or unregulated then it leads the economy into inflationary cycles. If credit creation is below the required limit then it harms the growth of the economy. As a central bank of India, RBI has to look for growth with price stability. Thus it creates the credit creation capacity of commercial banks by using various credit control tools.

6. Supervisory Function
RBI supervise the banking system in India. RBI has power to issue licence for setting up new banks, to open new branches, to decide minimum reserves. RBI inspects functioning of commercial banks in India and abroad. RBI also guide and direct the commercial banks in India. RBI can conduct audit any of the bank.

(B) DEVELOPMENTAL FUNCTIONS OF RBI

Developmental functions are described as under:

1. Development of the Financial System
The financial systems includes - financial institutions, financial markets and financial instruments. The sound and efficient financial system is necessary for rapid economic development of the nation.
RBI encourages the banking and non - banking institution for maintenance of sound and healthy financial system.

2. Development of Agriculture
As we know, India is an agrarian economy so RBI always give attention to agriculture sector by assessing credit needs of this sector. Regional Rural Banks (RRB), National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) which are only for agriculture finance comes under the control of the RBI.

3. Industrial Finance
For economic development of country, Industrial development is necessary. As we know industries includes small industries, middle industries, large scale industries etc all these industries development is necessary for overall economic development of country. For this purpose RBI supports the industrial sector also. RBI had played the vital role for setting up of such industrial finance institutions like ICICI Limited, IDBI, SIDBI, EXIM etc.

4. Training Provision
RBI always tried to provide essential training to the staff of the banking industry. RBI has set up banker's training college at several places. The training institute namely National Institute of Bank Management (NIBM), Bankers Staff College (BSC), College of Agriculture Banking (CAB) etc. 

5. Data Collection
RBI always collects important statistical data on several topics such as interest rates, inflation, savings, investment, deflation etc. This data is very much useful for policy makers and researchers.

6. Publication of the Reports 
RBI has its separate publication division. This division collect and publish data on different sector of the economy. The reports and bulletins are regularly published by the RBI. It includes RBI weekly reports, RBI annual reports, Report on Trend and Progress of commercial banks. This information is made available to the public also at cheaper rates. 

7. Promotion of Banking Habits
RBI always takes necessary steps to promote the banking habits among people for economic development of country. RBI has set up many institutions such as Deposit Insurance Corporation 1962, UTI 1964, IDBI 1964, NABARD 1982, NHB 1988 etc. These organizations develop and promote the banking habits among the people. 

8. Export Promotion
RBI always tries to encourage the facilities for providing finance for foreign trade especially exports from India. The Export - Import Bank of India (EXIM), and the Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India (ECGC) are supported by refinancing their lending for export purpose.

(C) SUPERVISORY FUNCTIONS

The supervisory functions of RBI are discussed as under:

1. Granting Licence to Banks
RBI grants licence to banks for carrying its business. RBI also provide licence for opening extension counters, new branches even to close down existing branches.

2. Bank Inspection
RBI has power to ask for periodical information from banks on various components of assets and liabilities.

3. Control Over NBFIs 
The non - bank financial institutions are not influenced by the working of a monitory policy. RBI has a right to issue directives to the NBFIs from time to time regarding their functioning. Through periodic inspection, it can control the NBFIs.

4. Implementation of Deposit Insurance Scheme
The RBI has set up the Deposit Insurance Guarantee Corporation in order to protect the deposit of small depositors. All bank deposits below Rs. 1 Lakh are insured with this corporation. The RBI work to implement the Deposit Insurance Scheme in case of a bank failure.

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