INTRODUCTION:-In these types of questions a statement is given followed by some conclusions. The student is required to go through the statements thoroughly & then decide which of the given conclusion/s follows on its basis.
STATEMENT:-A statement is a formal account of certain facts, views, problems or situations expressed in words.
CONCLUSION:-A conclusion is a belief or an opinion that is the result of reasoning out a given statement. It can also be defined as a proposition in an argument to which other propositions in the argument give support.
EVALUATION OF CONCLUSIONS :-A conclusion is said to follow the given statement if what is mentioned in the conclusion can be inferred from the given statement. We can make use of the following in evaluating the conclusions.
1) KEYWORDS :-Words such as-all, no, few, most, must, had to, will be, always, never, should be, may, may not, etc., help in evaluating the given conclusions.
Let us consider the following examples:
Statement:-‘South Asia will remain unaffected by global crisis’ – world bank.
Conclusion:-Sri Lanka, a South-Asian country, may or may not face the problem caused by global crisis.
Analysis:-Sri Lanka is a part of south-Asia; hence the statement made by the World Bank is applicable to Sri Lanka as well. The word ‘will’ is definitive in nature. It implies that every South-Asian country definitely remains unaffected. The words ‘may or may not’ are indefinitive in nature. The effect of global crisis on Sri Lanka is uncertain, but the statement is certain. Hence, the conclusion does not follow the given statement.
2) ESTABLISHED FACTS:-One can make use of the established facts in evaluating the conclusions. Let us consider the following examples.
Statement:-All the countries that oppose arms race should stop production of nuclear arms.
Conclusion:-India should stop producing nuclear arms.
Analysis:-It is an established fact that India is one of the countries, that are in the forefront, in spreading peace & disarmament. The statement asks all such countries to stop producing nuclear arms. Hence, the conclusion follows the given statement.
3) APPLICATION OF LOGIC:-The conclusion may not follow the given statement directly, but by application of logic we can evaluate the conclusion. Let us consider the following examples.
Statement:-Apprehensions about erosion in agriculturists vote bank prevented the ruling party from accepting the World Bank proposal.
Conclusion:-I. The proposal is pro-industrialists.
II. The proposal is anti-agriculturists.
Analysis:-From the statement it is clear that to appease agriculturists, India rejected the proposal. From the above, we do not know whom the proposal favors. Hence, we cannot conclude that the proposal is in favor of industrialists. Thus, conclusion I do not follow. But it can be inferred that the proposal is not in favor of agriculturists. Hence, conclusion II follows.
Directions:-1) If only conclusion I follows
2) If only conclusion II follows
3) If either I or II follows
4) If neither I nor II follows
5) If both I & II follow
1) Statement:-Security investments carry market risks.Hence it is best to consult your investment advisor or agent before investing.
Conclusion:-I. One should not invest in securities.
II. The investment advisor calculates market risk with certainty.
2) Statement:-Company ABC has an envious track record in manufacturing top quality cameras with the latest innovations, which ensures that the end user gets excellent pictures even in bad weather conditions.
Conclusion:-I. No other company has got as much recognition as ABC in this sector.
II. Even a layman can take great photographs using the cameras made by ABC
3) Statement:-The executive board of XYZ ltd has asked its four regional vice-presidents to resign by the evening or face termination orders. Three of them put in their papers this afternoon.
Conclusion:-I. The fourth manager would resign by before the evening deadline.
II. The executive board will terminate the service of the fourth manager, as soon as the deadline is over.
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