Background:India has signed and ratified Paris Agreement. Under this agreement India has submitted its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate change outlining eight (8) targets for 2021-2030, including
(i) When compared with 2005 level, Emission Intensity of India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) will be reduced by 33 to 35 percent by 2030
(ii) Achieving 40% cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel resources by 2030
(iii) By 2030, additional forest cover will be created, which led to the addition of carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of Carbon dioxide
The other targets pertain to:
- Sustainable lifestyles
- Climate-friendly growth path
- Climate change adaptation
- Climate change finance
- Capacity building and technology
National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC)To achieve the goals, Government of India is implementing the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) which includes eight national missions being implemented by various Ministries in specific areas.
These 8 Missions are :
- National Solar Mission
- National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency
- National Mission on Sustainable Habitat
- National Water Mission
- National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Eco-system
- National Mission for a Green India,
- National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture and
National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate ChangeOut of 8 Missions, three Missions seek to slow down the growth of India’s emissions. They are
- Mission on solar energy,
- Mission on Afforestation and
- Mission on energy efficiency
Another three Missions — on agriculture, water and Himalayan eco-systems — are about initiating measures to adapt to the effects of climate change.
The remaining two missions are service missions and seek to create more knowledge on useful climate response. They are; Mission on sustainable habitat and Mission on strategic knowledge
National Solar Mission:The Solar Mission has been one of the most important components of the NAPCC as it has the maximum impact on slowing down the growth of India’s greenhouse gas emissions.
National Solar mission set a target to generate 1, 00,000 Mega Watts of solar energy by 2022.
National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency:National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency aims to strengthen the market for energy efficiency by creating conducive regulatory and policy regime and has envisaged fostering innovative and sustainable business models to the energy efficiency sector.
National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency consists of four initiatives to enhance energy efficiency in energy-intensive industries which are as follows
- Perform Achieve and Trade Scheme
- Market Transformation for Energy Efficiency
- Energy Efficiency Financing Platform
- Framework for Energy Efficient Economic Development
National Mission on Sustainable HabitatThe National Mission on Sustainable Habitat (NMSH) envisages a framework to build urban resilience to climate change, by integrating adaptation and mitigation aspects into the urban planning process.
National Mission on Sustainable Habitat describes strategies to implement measures in the various sectors listed below:
- Energy Efficiency
- Urban Transport
- Water Supply and Sewerage
- Municipal Solid Waste Management
- Urban Storm Water Management
- Urban Planning
National Water MissionNational Water Mission aims for “conservation of water, minimizing wastage and ensuring its equitable distribution both across and within States through integrated water resources development and management”
Five goals identified in the National Water Mission:
- Comprehensive water database in public domain and assessment of the impact of climate change on water resources
- Promotion of citizen and state actions for water conservation, augmentation and preservation
- Focused attention to vulnerable areas including over-exploited areas
- Increasing water use efficiency by 20%
- Promotion of basin level integrated water resources management
National Mission for Sustainable AgricultureNational Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) has been formulated for enhancing agricultural productivity especially in rainfed areas focusing on integrated farming, water use efficiency, soil health management and synergizing resource conservation
NMSA has following four major programme components or activities:
- Rainfed Area Development
- On-Farm Water Management
- Soil Health Management
- Climate Change and Sustainable Agriculture: Monitoring, Modeling and Networking
National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan EcosystemThe National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem (NMSHE) under NAPCC encompasses conservation measures for sustaining and safeguarding the Himalayan ecosystems through the establishment of monitoring network, promotion of community-based management, human resource development, and strengthening regional cooperation.
Major initiatives include the establishment of a Centre for Himalayan Glaciology at the Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun
Green India MissionGreen India mission under NAPCC is implementing the plan to plant 10 million hectares by 2030. This will create additional carbon sinks to the tune of 2.5 billion tons.
A National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change has been established to assist state-level activities to meet the cost of adaptation. A sum of Rs 331 crores has been allocated for sixteen states to implement the adaptation programmes.
National Mission on Strategic Knowledge on Climate ChangeThe objective of National Mission on Strategic Knowledge on Climate Change
Work with the global community in research and technology development by collaboration through different mechanisms. It also has its own research agenda supported by climate change-related institutions and a Climate Research Fund.
Encourage initiatives from the private sector for developing innovative technologies for mitigation and adaptation.
Upcoming Missions:To reduce effects of climate change, the government of India is planning to add four new ‘missions’ to the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC). They are Mission on
- Wind energy
- To build preparedness to deal with impacts on human health.
- Effective management of India’s coastal resources
- Harness energy from waste.
Model Questions:1. In which year United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was adopted?
2. Currently how many missions are launched in India as a part of National Action Plan on Climate Change?
3. Green India mission under NAPCC is implementing the plan to plant 10 million hectares by:
4. Under Paris agreement, India aims to reduce Emission Intensity of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by 33 to 35 percent by:
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