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Brown to Green Report 2019: Key Facts

Brown to Green Report 2019: Key Facts
  • The Brown to Green Report 2019 has been released by Climate Transparency. The report is annually published by the organisation and is the world’s most comprehensive annual review of G20 climate action. The report provides information on G20 country mitigation action, adaptation and finance. The report is developed by experts from 14 research organisations and NGOs (Majority G20 countries) and covers 80 indicators. The report basically provides leaders and laggards in G20 countries in terms of climate action.

Key Findings

  • At present, extreme weather events lead to around 16,000 deaths and economic losses of US$ 142 billion in G20 countries every year.
  • Limiting global temperature has increased to 1.5°C instead of 3°C and has reduced negative impacts across sectors by over 70% in G20 countries.
  • All countries have adaption plan except Saudi Arabia.
  • G20 energy-related CO2 emissions increased by 1.8% in the year 2018 because of high economic growth and an ever greater fossil fuel energy supply.
  • G20 countries should cut their current greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by at least 45% in 2030 to be in line with global benchmarks set by the IPCC report on 1.5°C. Also, G20 countries must reach net-zero emissions by 2070.
  • Emissions in the power sector, including electricity and heat production, increased by +1.6% in the year 2018.
  • Transport emissions of the G20 have continued to increase in 2018 and have increased by 1.2%.
  • G20 emissions in the building sector grew by 1.4% in 2018 which is more than in any other sector.
  • G20 countries have provided about US$ 127 billion in subsidies to coal, oil and gas in 2017 compared to US$ 248 billion in 2013 excluding Saudi Arabia.
  • Brazil and Germany are the only two countries with long term goals. Australia is the worst-performing country in terms of climate response.

Five highest-ranked G20 countries in terms of deaths

Country Annual Average Deaths Death per 100,000 inhabitants Rank out of 181 countries
Russia 2,944 2.04 9
France 1,121 1.82 11
Italy 1,005 1.71 12
Germany 475 0.58 31
India 3,661 0.32 48

Five highest-ranked G20 countries in terms of economic losses from extreme weather events

Country Annual Average Deaths Death per 100,000 inhabitants Rank out of 181 countries
US 48,659 0.35 49
China 36,601 0.29 56
India 12,823 0.26 59
Australia 2,394 0.25 60
Mexico 2,955 0.17 73

India Specific Findings

  • India is the only country among G20 nations that is close to 1.5 degree Celsius temperature rise. India needs to reduce its emissions to below 4.5 GtCO2e by 2030 and to below 3.2 GtCO2e by 2050 to be within its fair-share range compatible with global 1.5°C IPCC scenarios.
  • The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of India are far below the G20 average. GHG emission of India is 1.9 (per capita) while the G20 average is 7.5 (per capita).
  • India needs to adopt fuel efficiency standards for all HDVs heavier than 3.5t.
  • The population of India is expected to increase by around 21% to 1,639 million by the year 2050.

Question: 

Q: 1. Who has released “Brown to Green” Report?
1. World Health Organisation
2. World Wide Fund For Nature
3. Climate Transparency
4. Transparency International
5. Greenpeace
Answer – 3

Explanation- The Brown to Green Report 2019 has been released by Climate Transparency.

Q: 2. According to Brown to Green Report 2019, which is the only country among G20 nations that is close to 1.5 degree Celsius temperature rise?
1. United States of America
2. Japan
3. Germany
4. Iceland
5. India
Answer- 5

Explanation- India is the only country among G20 nations that is close to 1.5 degree Celsius temperature rise. India needs to reduce its emissions to below 4.5 GtCO2e by 2030 and to below 3.2 GtCO2e by 2050 to be within its fair-share range compatible with global 1.5°C IPCC scenarios.
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