Computer Terms Glossary PDF

computer glossary

A

  • Access Time The time interval between the instance at which data is called from a storage device and the instance when delivery begins.
  • Accumulator A local storage area called a register, in which the result of an arithmetic or logic operation is formed It contains a single data register.
  • Active Directory Active directory stores information about its users and can act in a similar manner to a phonebook. This allows all of the information and computer settings about an organization to be stored in a central, organized database.
  • Adware It is a software package which automatically renders advertisements in order to generate revenue for its author.
  • ALGOL It was the first language with a formal grammar. ALGOL was created by a committee for scientific use in 1958. Its major contribution is being the root of the tree that has led to such languages as Pascal, C, C+ + and Java.
  • Algorithm In computing, an algorithm is a procedure for accomplishing some tasks which, given an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state.
  • Alphanumeric A character set that contains letters, digits and other special characters such as @, $, +. *, %. etc.
  • Amplifier A device that takes in a weak electric signal and sends out a strong one. It is used to boost electrical Signals in many electronic devices such as radios, !elevisions and telephone.
  • Analog Computer A computer that operates on data which is in the form of continuous variable physical quantities.
  • Android It is a linux based operating system designed Primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets computer.
  • Antivirus Software Antivirus software consists of 3omputer programs that attempt to identify threat and eliminate computer virus and other malicious software ( Malware )
  • Applet A small java application that is downloaded from java based web browser .
  • Application Software Application software is a subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly to a task that the user wishes to perform. e.g., word document, spreadsheet, etc.
  • Archieve It provides backup storage.
  • Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) The arithmetic logic unit is a part of the execution unit, a core component of all CPUs. ALUs are capable of calculating the results of a wide variety of basic arithmetical and logical computations
  • Artificial Intelligence Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today.
  • ASCII ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is a character set and a character encoding based on the Roman alphabet as used in Modern English and other Western European languages.
  • Assembler A program that translates mnemonic statement into executable instruction.
  • Attribute The characteristics of an entity are called its attributes.

 B

  • Backspace Backspace key is used on the keyboard to delete the text. Backspace will delete the text to the left of cursor.
  • Bandwidth The maximum amount of data that can travel in a communication path in a given time, measured in bits per second (bps).
  • Bar Code A bar code is a machine-readable representation of information in a visual format on a surface. The first bar code system was developed by Norman Joseph Woodland and Bernard Silver in 1952.
  • Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) It is also known as ROM BIOS. It provides an abstraction layer for the hardware, i.e., a consistent way for application programs and operating system to intract with input/output devices.
  • Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) A coding system in which a 4 digit binary number represents each decimal digit from 0 to 9
  • Bit A bit sometimes abbreviated as b) is the most basic information unit used in computing and information theory. A single bit is a one or a zero, a true or a false, a 'flag' which is 'on' or 'off' or in general, the quantity of information required to distinguish two mutually exclusive states from each other.
  • Bitmap A method of storing a graphic image as a set of bits in a computer memory. To display the image on the screen, the computer converts the bits into pixels.
  • Blog It is a discussion or informational site published on the world wide web.
  • Bomb A type of virus designed to activate at a specific date and time on your computer.
  • Bluetooth A protocol that permits a wireless exchange of information between computers. cell phone and other electronic devices within a radius about 30 feet,
  • Booting Booting is a bootstrapping process which starts the operating system when a computer is switched on
  • Botnet It is a collection of internet connected programs communicating with other similar programs in order to perform tasks.
  • Boot Sequence A boot sequence is the set of operations the computer performs when it is switched on which loads an operating system.
  • Browser A special software that enables users to read/view web pages and jump from one web page to another.
  • Buffering The process of storing data in a memory device, allowing the devices to change the data rates,perform error checking and error retransmission.
  • Bug A software bug is an error, flaw, failure, or fault in a computer program or system that produces an incorrect or unexpected result.
  • Bulletin Board System (BBS) An online information system, usually, set-up by an individual on a non-profit basis for the enjoyment of other individual with similar interest
  • Bus A circuit that provides a communication path between two or more devices of a digital computer system.
  • Byte A byte is commonly used as a unit of storage measurement in computers, regardless of the type of data being stored 

C

  • Cache Memory The speed of CPU is extremely high compared to the access time of main memory Therefore, the performance of CPU decreases due to the slow speed of main memory. To decrease the mismatch in operating speed, a small memory chip is attached between CPU and main memory whose access time is very close to the processing speed of CPU It is called the Cache Memory.
  • Central Processing Unit (CPU) The Central Processing Unit (CPU) performs the actual processing of data. It is the part of a computer system that interprets and carries out the instructions contained in the software. The CPU is generally called by its generic name 'Processor'. It is also known as the brain of computer.
  • Chart Wizard The chart wizard brings you through the process of creating a chart by displaying a series of dialog boxes.
  • Channel A medium for transferring information which is also called a line or circuit. A communication channel can be a physical link, such as a cable that connects two stations in a network or it can consist of some electromagnetic transmission.
  • Chat Typing text into a message box on a screen to engage in dialog with one or more people via the internet or other network.
  • Chip A tiny wafer of silicon containing miniature electric circuits that can store millions of bits of information.
  • Client-Server Client-server is a network architecture which separates the client from the server. Each instance of the client software can send requests to a server or application server.
  • Clock Rate The clock rate is the fundamental rate in cycles per second, measured in hertz, at which a computer performs its most basic operations such as adding two numbers or transferring a value from one processor register to another.
  • CMOS A type of computer chip which is able to operate with a very small amount of electricity from a battery. CMOS refers as complementary metal oxide semiconductor.
  • Cookie A packet of information that travels between a browser and the web server
  • Command Line Interface A Command Line Interface (CLI) is a method of interacting with a computer by giving it lines of textual commands (that is, a sequence of characters) from the keyboard.
  • com Command.com is the name for the default operating system shell (or command line iterpreter) for DOS and some versions of Windows.
  • Compact Disk (CDR) CD-ROM disks are made of plastic and are coated with reflective metals. Their storage density is very high, storage cost is very low and access time is relatively fast. Each disk is approximately 4.5 inches in diameter and can hold about 700 MB of data
  • Compiler A compiler is a computer program that -translates a series of instructions written in one computer language (called the source language) into another computer language (also called the object or target language).
  • Communication The transrnission of data from one computer to another or from one device to another is called communication.
  • Computer Networks A computer network is a system or communication among two or more computers. The computer networks can be broadly classified as Homogenous' and 'Heterogeneous'.
  • Computer Graphics Computer Graphics are visual presentations on a computer screen. Examples are photographs, drawings, line arts, graphs, diagrams, typography numbers, symbols, geometric designs, maps, engineering drawings or other images.
  • Computer Output Microfilm (COM) An extremely high speed, low cost process that records computer generated information directly from the computer tape or cartridge to a mini microfilm media.
  • Cold Boot When a computer restarts after the power cut is called cold boot
  • Control Panel Control Panel is the part of Windows menu. accessible from the start menu, which allows users to view and manipulate basic system settings and controls, such as adding hardware. adding/removing software, controlling user accounts, changing accessibility options, etc.
  • Computer Worm A computer worm is a self - replicating computer program, similar to a computer virus .
  • Control Unit A control unit is the part of a CPU that 'erects its operation. The outputs of this unit control The activity of the rest of the device.
  • Cracker The preferred term used to refer to a computer criminal who penetrates a computer to steal information or damage the program in some way
  • Crash A malfunction in hardware or software that keeps a computer from functioning.
  • CRT Monitors A CRT monitor contains mdlions c_; tirry red, green and blue phosphorous dots that glow when struck by an electron beam that travels across the screen to create a visible image.
  • Crawler A web crawler is an internet bot that systematically browses the world wide web, typically for the purpose of web indexing. It is also called a web spider.

D

  • Data The word data has been derived from latin word 'datum' (means facts). It is a collection of facts and figures which are not in directly usable form.
  • Database A collection of data files integrated and organised into a single comprehensive file system which is arranged to minimise duplication of data and to provide convenient access to information within that system to satisfy a wide variety of user needs.
  • Data Abstraction A data abstraction is a simplified view of an object that includes only features one is interested in while hides away the unnecessary details.
  • Data Dictionary The document that contains clear definitions of the data that will be used in setting up database management systems.
  • Data Processing Converting data into information, is called data processing.
  • Data Flow Diagrams A data flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of the 'flow'of data through an information system. A data flow diagram can also be used for the visualization of data processing (structured design).
  • Data Type A data type is a defined kind of data, that is, a set of possible values and basic operations on those values.
  • Debugging Debugging is a methodical process of finding and reducing the number of bugs, or defects, in a computer program or a piece of electronic hardware, thus making it behave as expected
  • Degree The number of fields associated with the database table or relation
  • Desktop Publishing Desktop Publishing (also known as DTP) combines a personal computer, page layout software and a printer to create publications on small economic scale.
  • Device Driver A device driver, often called a driver for short, is a computer program that enables another program, typically, an operating system to interact with a hardware device.
  • Difference Engine A difference engine is a historical, now obsolete, mechanical special-purpose computer designed to tabulate polynomial functions. Difference engine was created in 1822 by Charles Babbage. The machine used for the decimal numbers system and was powered by cranking a handle.
  • Direct Access Direct access is the capability of the computer equipment to obtain data from a storage device. or to enter data into a storage device, in a sequence independent of their relative positions by means of address that indicate the physical location of the data.
  • Disk Operating System (DOS) An operating system which contains the disk oriented commands and uses disk devices for permanent storage.
  • Directory In computing, a directory is an entity in a file system which contains a group of files and other directories. A directory contained inside another directory is called a sub-directory of that directory. Together, the directories form a hierarchy or a tree structure.
  • Dot Matrix Printer A Dot Matrix Printer refers to a type of computer printer with a print head that runs back and forth on the page and prints by impact, striking an ink-soaked cloth ribbon against the paper, much like a typewriter.
  • Domain Name A unique name that identifies a particular website and represents the name of the server where the web pages reside.
  • Dots Per Inch (DPI) It is defined as the measure of the resolution of a printer, scanner or monitor. It refers to the number of dots in a one inch line. The more dots per inch, the higher the resolution.
  • Download It refers to the act of transmitting data from a remote computer on the internet or other network to one's own computer.
  • Drag-and-Drop In computer graphical user interfaces, drag and drop is the action of clicking on a virtual object and dragging it to a different location or onto another virtual object.
  • Dual Core The pentium dual core brand was used for mainstream X-86 architecture microprocessor from Intel.
  • Dumb Terminal A computer terminal with no processing or programming capabilities, generally used for simple data entry or retrieval tasks.
  • DVD DVD is an optical disk storage media format that can be used for data storage including movies with high quality video and sound
  • Dynamic RAM DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) is a type of random access memory which stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor.

  E

  • EBCDIC EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) is an 8-bit character encoding used on IBM mainframe operating systems, like Z/OS, S/390, AS/400 and i5/OS.
  • E-Commerce Electronic commerce is a type of industry where buying and selling of product or services is conducted over electronic systems such as the Intranet and other computer network.
  • Editing The process of changing information by inserting, deleting, replacing, rearranging and reformation.
  • EDO (Extended Data Output) RAM This form of dynamic RAM speeds access to memory locations by working on a simple assumption—the next time memory is accessed, it will be at a contiguous address in a contiguous chunk of hardware.
  • Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM) A special type of Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM) that can be erased by exposing it to an electrical charge. It retains its contents even when the power is turned off.
  • Electronic Data Processing (EDP) A data processing through equipment that is predominantly electronic such as digital computer.
  • E-mail Electronic mail, abbreviated e-mail is a method of composing, sending, storing and receiving messages over electronic communication systems.
  • Encapsulation It is a mechanism that associates the code and the data it manipulates into a single unit and keeps them safe from external interference.
  • Encryption In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding messages (or information) in such a way that hackers cannot read it, but the authorised users can access it.
  • End User Any individual who uses the information oefierated by a computer based system.
  • Entity An entity is something that has certain attributes or properties which may be assigned values.
  • EPROM An EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only memory) is a type of computer memory chip that retains ,ts L-tita when its power supply is switched off.
  • Escape Key A key that permits the user to leave one segment of a program and move to another.
  • Excel Excel allows you to create spreadsheets much like paper ledgers that can perform automatic calculations.
  • Exe (.exe) It is a common filename extension denoting an executable file (a program) in the DOS. MS- Windows.
  • Execution Time The total time required to executela program on a particular system.
  • Extranet A technology that permits the users of one organisation's intranet to enter portions of another organisation's intranet in order to conduct business transactions or collaborate on joint projects. 

F

  • Fax It stands for 'Facsimile machine'. It is used to transmit a copy of a document electronically.
  • Field The attributes of an entity are written as fields in the table representation.
  • File A collection of information stored electronically and treated as a unit by a computer. Every file must have its own distinctive name.
  • File Allocation Table (FAT) It is the name of a computer file system architecture. The FAT file system is a legacy file system which is simple and robust.
  • File Manager The file manager is an operating system utility that provides a user interface to work with file systems
  • File Server A computer on a network that stores the Programs and data files shared by the users of the
  • Firewall A security system usually consisting of hardware and software that prevents unauthorised persons from accessing certain parts of a programme database or network .
  • Firmware Firmware is a technology which has the combination of both hardware and software . It provides necessary instructions for how the device communicates with others computer hardware .
  • Flash Memory It is a type of non-volatile computer storage chip that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed. It was developed using EEPROM.
  • Floating-point Numbers Signed numbers held in a traction exponent format.
  • Floppy disk A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a circular piece of thin, flexible (i.e , floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic walled.
  • Flowcharts Flowcharts are the means of visually representing the flow of data through an information processing system, the operations an performed within the system and the sequence in which they arc performed.
  • Foreign Key A field in a database table. which links it to another related table.
  • FORTRAN Its name stands for Formula TRANslating system. The language was designed at IBM for scientific computing. The components were very simple and provided the programmer with low-level access to the computer's innards.
  • Format To set margins, tabs, font or line spacing in layout of a document.
  • Frame The basic packages of information on a network channel
  • Frequency The number of oscillations of a signal per unit of time. It is usually expressed in cycles per second (cps or hertz Hz)..
  • Freeware A form of software distribution where the author retains copyright of the software but makes the program available to others at no cost.
  • Function Key A special key on a computer keyboard or a terminal devices keyboard that is used to perform specjic functions. These keys are programmable so that a software product can put the function keys to specific uses. Many keyboards have function keys labelled from F1 to Fl0.

G

  • Garbage In Garbage Out (GIGO) It pertains to the fact that most computer errors are not errors, they are data errors caused by incorrect input data.
  • Gateway A device that is used to joint together two networks having different base protocols.
  • Gigabyte A gigabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to approximately one billion bytes
  • Gigahertz (GHz) A measurement used to identify the speed of the central processing unit. One gigahertz is equal to 1 billion cycles per second.
  • Glitch A hardware problem that causes a computer to malfunction or crash.
  • Gopher A protocol used for locating and transferring information on the internet. It is an internet search tool that allows users to access textual information.
  • Graphic Interchange Format (GIF) A simple file format for pictures and photographs, that are compressed so they can be sent quickly.
  • Graphical User Interface A Graphical User Interface (or GUI) is a method of interacting with a computer through a metaphor of direct manipulating of graphical images and widgets in addition to text.
  • Groupware It is a software that allows networked individual to form groups and collaborate on documents, programs or database.

H

  • Hacker A computer criminal who penetrates and tempers with computer programs or systems.
  • Hard Disk A hard disk is a non-volatile data storage device that stores data on a magnetic surface layered onto disk platters.
  • Hardware The mechanical, magnetic, electronic and electrical components that comprises a computer system such as CPU, monitor, keyboard and mouse, etc.
  • High-Level Programming Languages A high-level programming language is a programming language that is more user-friendly. to some extent platform-independent and abstract from low-level computer processor operations such as memory accesses.
  • Hit A single request for information made by a client computer from a web server
  • Home Page A starting point or a doorway to the website. It refers to the web page that identifies a website and contains the hyperlink to other web page in the website.
  • Host Computer A computer that provides information or a service to other computers on the internet. Every host computer has its own unique host name
  • Hub A network device that connects multiple computers on a LAN, so that they can communicate with one another.
  • Hyperlink An image or portion of text on a web page that is linked to another web page.
  • Hybrid Computer Hybrid computers are made by taking the best features of the analog computer and digital computer. A simple example of this type is the computer used in hospitals.
  • HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) It is an important protocol used on the world wide web for moving hypertext files across the internet. It requires an HTTP client program on one end and HTTP server program on other end.

I

  • Icon A symbol (such as picture or a folder) that represents a certain function on your computer. When the user clicks on the icon, the appropriate function is executed.
  • Impact Printers Impact printers transfer the image onto paper through a printing mechanism that strikes the paper called ribbon. Examples of impact printers are dot matrix printers and daisy wheel printers.
  • Information Information is the summarization of data according to a certain pre-defined purpose.
  • Ink-Jet Printer In an ink-jet printer. characters are formed as a result of electrically charged or heated ink being sprayed in fine jets onto the paper. Individual nozzles in the printing head produce high resolution characters.
  • Input In order to give instructions to a computer, the information has to be supplied to it. This information is given to the computers through an input device such as keyboard, mouse, scanner etc.
  • Instant Messaging (IM) A chat program that lets people communicate over the internet in real time.
  • Instruction A command or order given to a computer to perform a task.
  • Instruction Cycle Fetching and decoding operations of the machine cycle.
  • Interface A device or program that helps a user to communicate with a computer.
  • Intelligent Terminal Intelligent terminals are those which necessarily have processing power and non-volatile data storage space.
  • Interpreter A program that converts and executes the source code into machine code line by line.
  • Internet The Internet (also known simply as the net is the worldwide, publicly accessible system of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by nacket switching using the standard Internet protocol
  • Internet Protocol (IP) Address IP addresses are assigned to each and every computer on a TCP/IP network. It ensures that data on a network goes where it is supported to go e.g., 192.168.2.250
  • Internet Service Provider An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is a business organization that offers users access to the Internet and related services.
  • Internet Protocol Suite The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols that implement the protocol stack on which the Internet and most commercial networks run.
  • Integrated Circuits Multiple electronic components combined on a silicon chip. 

J

  • Javascript It is an object oriented programming language used to creat interactive effects in a web browser.
  • JPEG It is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital photography. The term 'JPEG' is an acronym for the Joint Photographic Experts Groups.
  • Joystick A joystick is a computer peripheral or general control device consisting of a handheld stick that pivots about one end and transmits its angle in two or three dimensions to a computer.

  K

  • Kernel It is the fundamental part of a program, such as an operating system, that resides in memory at all times.
  • Keyboard This is the standard input device attached to all computers. The layout of keyboard is just like the traditional typewriter of the type QWERTY. It also Contains some extra command keys and function keys.
  • Key Field A unique field in a record used to distinguish one record from another.
  • Kilobyte A kilobyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to 1024 bytes. It is commonly abbreviated KB. kB. k byte or K byte 

L

  • Label One or more characters used to Identify a statement and instruction or a data field in a computer program.
  • LAN LAN stands for Local Area Network In a LAN the connected computers are geographically close together. They are either in the same building or within a smaller area.
  • Landscape A printer feature, generally controlled by software, which rotates the output image by 90- to print across the length rather than the width of the paper.
  • Laptop Laptop is a small, lightweight and portable battery-powered computers that can fit onto your lap. They each have a thin, flat and liquid crystal display screen.
  • LASER Printer A computer-driven photocopier that creates an original image of the text or graphics from the output of the computer onto a paper.
  • LIGHT Pen A light sensitive style for forming graphics by touching coordinates on a display screen. thereby seeming to draw directly on the screen.
  • Link A communication path between two nodes or channel.
  • LINUX Linux is an open source operating system, meaning that the source code of the operating system is freely available to the public.
  • List Processing (LISP) A high level programming language suitable for handling logical operations and non numeric applications.
  • Loop A sequence of instructions that is executed repeatedly until a terminal condition occurs. 

M

  • Machine Language The language of computer also called binary language. Instructions in this language are written as a sequence of O's and l's.
  • Macro A script that operates a series of commands to perform a function. It is set up to automate repetitive tasks.
  • Mainframe Sometimes it's called a server or CPU Mostly a mainframe is only a mainframe when compared to a desktop computer. It is bigger and much more powerful.
  • Malware It a software that disrupts normal computer functions or sends a users personal data without the users authorisatinn.
  • Mass Storage It is referred to storage where large volume', of backup/data is stored.
  • Megabyte (MB) 1 Megabyte is equal to 1048576 bytes usually rounded off to one million bytes. It is also called a 'meg'.
  • Memory Temporary storage for information, including applications and documents. Computer memory is measured in terms of the amount of information it can store, commonly in megabytes or gigabytes.
  • Menu Bar The horizontal strip across the top of an application's window. Each word on the strip has a context sensitive drop-down menu containing features and actions that are available for the application in use.
  • Merge Combining two or more files into a single file.
  • Metadata Data about data, i.e., name, length, valid values or description of a data element. It is stored in a data dictionary and repository.
  • Microcomputer A microprocessor-based computer, consisting of an MPU, internal semiconductor memory, input and output sections and a system bus, all on one, or several monolithic IC chips inserted into one or several PC boards.
  • Microprocessor A complete Central Processing Unit (CPU) contained on a single silicon chip.
  • MIDI Stands for Music Instrument Digital Interface. It allows a computer to store and replay a musical instrument's output.
  • Minicomputer Considered to be more capable than a microcomputer but less powerful than a mainframe.
  • Minimize A term used in a GUI operating system that uses windows. It refers to reducing a window to an icon, or a label at the bottom of the screen, allowing another window to be viewed.
  • MIPS An acronym derived from Million of Instruction Per Second (MIPS) It is used to measure the speed of a processor.
  • Mnemonic A symbolic label or code remainder that assists the user in remembering a specific operation or command in assembly language.
  • Modem An acronym for Modulator/Demodulator that refers to specific equipment that provides a means of communication between two computer systems over conventional telephone lines.
  • Monitor The visual readout device of a computer system. A monitor can be in several forms a cathode ray tube (CRT), a liquid crystal display (LCD), or a flat-panel, full-color display
  • Mouse A manually operated input device for moving or entering positional information and other data or commands by accessing (pointing to) images on a monitor.
  • Morphing The transformation of one image into another image.
  • Motherboard Main circuit board of a micro computer that contains the CPU, BIOS, memory, mass storage interfaces, serial and parallel ports, expansion slots and all the controllers required to control standard peripheral devices such as display screen, keyboard and disk drive.
  • MS-DOS An early operating system developed by Microsoft Corporation (Microsoft Disc Operating System).
  • Multitasking Multitasking can simultaneously work with several programs or interrelated tasks that share memories, codes, buffers and files.
  • Multithreading It is a facility available in an operating system that allows multiple functions from the same application packages.
  • Multiuser The term describing the capability of a computer system to be operated at more than one terminal at the same llf 11°
  • Multiplexer It is a device That combines multiple input signals into an aggregate signal for transmission.
  • Multimedia Software programs that combine text and graphics with sound, video and animation. A multimedia PC contains the hardware to support these capabilities. 

N

  • Network Interface Card (NIC) This is a part of the computer that allows it to talk to other computers via a network protocol like TCP/IP
  • Newsgroup An electronic discussion group maintained over the internet or tied into a bulletin board system. Each newsgroup is typically organised around a specific interest.
  • Nibble A sequence of four adjacent bits , or a half byte . A hexadecimal or BCD coded digit can be represented by a nibble .
  • Non Volatile Memory A memory where stored data remains undristributed by the removal of electrical powers . 

O

  • Object Something that contains both the data and the application that operates on that data,
  • Object Code Machine language code produced by a translator program, such as an assembler, interpreter, or compiler.
  • Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) A process that permits the user to take material from one source and insert it in another document.
  • Object Oriented A computer program and its data are modeled as a group of autonomous objects that respond to message sent by other object.
  • Offline It refers to the state in which a computer is temporarily or permanently unable to communicate with another computer.
  • Online It refers to the state of being connected to the networked computer system or the Internet.
  • Open Source Software (OSS) Software that makes the underlying source code available to all users at no charge. Linux is the example of open source software.
  • Operand The part of a machine level instruction which tells the central processor, the location of the data to be manipulated by some operation.
  • Operation Code (op-Code) Part of a computer instruction word that designates the function performed by a specific instruction,
  • Operating System A set of instructions that tell a computer on how to operate when it is turned on. It sets up a filing system to store files and tells the computer how to display information on a video display.

P

  • Patch A small program that improves ,,i piece of software or corrects an error in
  • Peripheral A term designating the various kinds of machines and devices that work in conjunction with a computer but are not necessarily part of the computer structure. Typically, peripherals refer to the hardware devices external to a computer.
  • Personal Computer (PC) A single-user computer containing a Central Processing Unit (CPU) and one or more memory circuits.
  • Piracy The illegal copying of software or other creative works.
  • Pitch The number of monospace characters (with same width) that will fit in a 1-inch line of text
  • Pixels An acronym derived from .picture element. The smallest element (a dot) on a display screen
  • Plug-In This is a program that your browser uses to manipulate a downloaded file. It differs from a Helper Application in that the plug-in works inside the browser window.
  • Port An input/output channel (either parallel or serial), terminated at a connector on the con ,r,uter It interconnects the computer's input and / or output terminals to an appropriate source andior Jestination.
  • Portrait A term that designates the position of conventional printing across the width of a page.
  • Post Office Protocol (POP) A protocol that specifies how a personal computer can connect to a mail server on the internet and download E-mail.
  • Primary Key It is a key that uniquely identifies each tuple or row in a table.
  • Process A collection of code, data and otter system , resources including at least one thread o execution that performs a data processing task.
  • Program A set instructions to perform a specific task .
  • Programming Language A vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer to perform specific tasks. Some common programming languages are BASIC, C, C+ +, dBASE and Pearl.
  • Programmable Read-Only Memory (PROM) A blank read-only memory (ROM) that is programmed with external programming equipment after Once programmed, it is not re-programm:inle considered to be a ROM.
  • Prompt An onscreen symbol. (e.g.. cursor) that indicates An(-_,re to type of command.
  • Printer A mechanical device for printing a computer's output on paper
  • Protocols A set of rules that defines exactly how information is to he exchanged between two systems over internet.
  • Pseudocode It is a short hand way of describing a computer program

Q

  • Query A request for information from a database.
  • Qwerty It is one of the standard computer keyboard, with the character 0, W. E, R. T and Y on the top row of letters.

R

  • Random Access Memory (RAM) A volatile, semiconductor storage structure that accesses temporary data with a random or direct accessing method. It is accurately referred to as 'erasable read/write' memory. Data in this memory can be read by the CPU directly.
  • Read Only Memory (ROM) A semiconductor memory whose data cannot be erased, or overwritten; it can only be accessed (read) for use by the CPU
  • Record A collection of all the information pertaining to a particular entity instance.
  • Register A temporary storage unit for quick, direct accessibility of a small amount of data for processing. Most computers include a set of internal registers that can be accessed more quickly than the system's main memory
  • Remote Server A network computer that allows a user on the network from a distant location to access information.
  • Response Time The total time elapsed between submission of command and data to a computer and getting the result of computation.
  • Rich Text Format (RTF) A type of document formatting which enables special characteristic like fonts and margins to be included within as ASCII file.
  • Router A network device that enables the network to reroute messages it receives that are intended for other networks. The network with the router receives the message and sends it on its way exactly as received. In normal operations. they do not store any of the messages that they pass through.
  • Routing The process of choosing the best path throughout the LAN.

 S

  • Scanner An electnic device that uses light-sensing equipment to scan paper images such as text, photos and illustrations and translate the images into signals that the computer can then store, modify, or distribute
  • Search Engine Software that makes it possible to look for and retrieve information on the Internet, particularly the Web. Some popular search engines are Alta Vista, Google, HotBot, Yahoo!, Web Crawler and Lycos
  • Sector A section of a recording track on a magnetic disk.
  • Serial Operation A method of data transmission where the data is handled in sequence, one bit at a time
  • Server A computer that shares its resources and information with other computers on a network. This is a mainframe computer that serves the other computers attached to it.
  • Shareware A software that is not free but is available for a free trial period.
  • Shell A shell is an outer layer of a program that provides that user interface or the way of instruct the computer.
  • Simplex Transmission of data in one direction.
  • Socket A bi-directional pipe for incoming and outgoing data that enables an application program to access the TCP/IP protocols
  • Software The set of computer programs, procedure and associated documentation related to the effective operation. Software includes: operating systems (system software). language translators (assemblers, interpreters and compilers) and application programs.
  • Source Code (Source Program) A set of computer instructions in hard-copy or stored form. When written in a language other than machine language, the source code requires translation by an assembler (or macroassembler), interpreter, or compiler into object code.
  • Spam Irrelevant or unsolicited messages sent over Internet, typically to large numbers of users, for the purpose of advertising. phishing spreading malwares, etc
  • Spreadsheet Software that allows one to calculate numbers in a format that is similar to pages in a conventional ledger.
  • Swapping Storing programs on disk and then transferring these programs into main storage as and when they are needed.
  • Synchronisation This method ensures that the receiving end can recognise characters in order, in which the transmitting end sends them in a serial data transmission.
  • Systems Software A general term for software that supervises, sequences and coordinates programs. Systems software may include programs, such as: operating systems, assemblers, interpreters, compilers, software debugging programs, text editors, utilities and peripheral drivers.
  • Super Computer The largest mainframe computer featuring exceptionally high speed operation while manipulating huge amounts of information.

  T

  • TCP/IP Stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. This is a large grouping of programs and standards that govern how information moves round the Internet.
  • Template A pre-established format for a document, stored in a computer.
  • Terabyte (TB) It's about a trillion bytes. Actually it's 2 to the 40th power or 10095111627776 bytes.
  • Teraflop A measure of a computer's speed. It can be expressed as a trillion floating-point operations per second.
  • Terminal This is what you look at when you're on the Internet. It's your computer screen.
  • Terminal Emulation This is an application that allows your terminal to act as a dumb terminal.
  • Time Sharing It refers to the allocation of computer resources in a time dependent fashion to run several programs simultaneously.
  • Topology The structure of the network including physical connection such as wiring schemes and logical interactions between network devices.
  • Track A ring on the surface of a magnetic disk.
  • Trackball Input device that controls the position of the cursor on the screen; the unit is mounted near the keyboard and movement is controlled by moving a ball.
  • Transfer Rate The rate at which data is transmitted tween two computers or other electronic equipment

 U

  • Uniform Resource Locator (URL) The specific internet address for a resource such as an individual or an organisation.
  • Unix This is an operating system developed by AT & T. It's a big push that it allows one server to serve many different end users at one time
  • Upload The processes of transferring information from a computer to a web site (or other remote location on a network).
  • UPS (Universal Power Supply or Uninterruptible Power Supply) An electricai power supply that includes a battery to provide enough power to a computer during an outage to back-up data and properly shut down.
  • User Someone attached to a server or host.
  • User-Friendly Program A software program that has been designed to easily direct the user through the operation or application of a program. A menu-driven program is considered to be 'user-friendly'.
  • Utility A software program designed to perform a computer system's routine housekeeping functions, like copying, deleting files and/or providing techniques to simplify the execution of a program.

V

  • Validation The process of making sure that the forms and documents from a particular transaction are correct.
  • Video Teleconferencing A remote 'face-to-face chat,' when two or more people using a webcam and an Internet telephone connection chat online. The webcam enables both live voice and video.
  • Virus A piece of computer code designed as a prank or malicious act to spread from one computer to another by attaching itself to other programs.
  • Volatile Memory A memory whose contents are irretrievably lost when power is removed. If data in RAM must be saved after power shutdown, back-up in nonvolatile memory (magnetic disk. tape. or CD-R) is essential

 W

  • Webcam A video camera/computer setup that takes live images and sends them to a Web browser.
  • Window A portion of a computer display used in a graphical interface that enables users to select commands by pointing to illustrations or symbols with a 'Windows' is also the name Microsoft adopted for its popular operating system.
  • Word The set of binary bits handled by a computer as a primary unit of data. Typically, each location in memory contains one word.
  • Word Processor A computer system or program for setting, editing, revising, correcting, storing and printing text.
  • Word Wide Web ('www or 'The Web') A network of servers on the Internet that use hypertext-linked databases and files. It was developed in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee, a British computer scientist and is now the primary platform of the Internet.
  • Workgroup Persons sharing files and data between themselves.
  • Workstation The work area and/or equipment used for computer operations, including computer-aided design (CAD). The equipment generally consists of a monitor, keyboard, printer and/or plotter and other output devices
  • WORM (Write-Once, Read-Many) A high-density optical disk memory available in a variety of formats from 5.25" to 1.4". The Worm can be programmed once, permanently saving a user's data. It then becomes an optical disk read-only memory having essentially the same features as a CD-ROM. Also called CD-R (CD-RECORDABLE). 

 XYZ

  • X-Y Plotter A computer-driven printing mechanism that draws coordinate points in graph form.
  • ZOOM The enlarging or reducing an image displayed on a computer process of proportionately monitor.
  • ZIP Stands for Zone Information Protocol. This is an application that allows for the compression of application files.
  • Zombie A computer that has been hijacked by a cracker without the owner's knowledge and used to perform malicious tasks on the Internet.

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