Question 1In the past, to run for one’s country in the Olympics was the ultimate achievement for any athlete. Nowadays an athlete’s motives are more and more influenced by financial gain and consequently, we do not see our best athletes in the Olympics, which is still only for amateurs.
Which of the following will most weaken the above conclusion ?
a) The publicity and fame that can be achieved by competing in the Olympics makes athletes more “ marketable “ by agents and potential sponsors, while allowing the athletes to retain their amateur status.
b) The winning of a race is not as important as participating
c) There is a widely-held belief that our best Olympic athletes already receive enough in terms of promotion and sponsorship
d) It has been suggested that professional athletes should be allowed to compete in the game
e) Athletics as an entertainment is like any other entertainment job and deserves a financial reward.
Unless new reserves are found soon, the world’s supply of coal is being depleted in such a way that with demand continuing to grow at present rates, reserves will be exhausted by the year 2050.
Which of the of following, if true, would most weaken the above argument?
a) There has been a slowdown in the rate of increase in world demand for coal over the last 5years from 10% to 5%
b) It has been known for many years that there are vast stocks of coal under Antarctica which are yet to be economically exploited
c) Oil is being used increasingly in place of coal for many industrial and domestic uses.
d) As domestic resources are depleting more marginal supplies , which are more costly to produce and less efficient in use , are being mined.
e) none of the above
Question 3:In accordance with their powers, many state authorities are introducing fluoridation of drinking water.This follows the conclusion of 10 years of research that the process ensures that children and adults receive the required intake of fluoride that will strengthen teeth. The maximum level has been set at one part per million. However , there are many who object ,claiming that fluoridation removes freedom of choice
Which of the following will weaken the claim of the proponents of fluoridation?
a) Fluoridation over a certain prescribed level has been shown to lead to a general weakening of teeth
b) There is no need record of the long term effects of drinking fluoridated water.
c) The people to be affected by fluoridation claim that they have not had sufficient opportunity to voice their views.
d) Fluoridation is only one part of general dental health
e) Water already contains natural fluoride.
Question 4:The burning of coal, dioxide ,oil and other combustible energy sources producedioxide, a natural constituent of the atmosphere. Elevated levels of carbon dioxide are thought to be responsible for half the greenhouse effect. Enough carbon dioxide has been sent into the atmosphere already to cause a significant temperature increase. Growth in industrial production must be slowed or production processes must be changed.
Which of the following, if true, would tend to weaken the strength of the above conclusion?
a) Many areas in the world are cold anyway , so a small rise in temperature would be welcome.
b) Carbon dioxide is bad for health
c) Most carbon dioxide is emitted by automobiles
d) Industry is switching over to synthetic liquid fuel extracted from coal
e) A shift to other energy sources to be very costly.
Question 5:In August 1980, according to a New York times /CBS news poll , 36 % of the voters called themselves Republican or said they were independents leaning towards being Republicans .In November 1984 , the Republican figure rose to47%. But in the latest time / CBS survey, the republicans were down to38 %. Therefore , the Democrats are likely to win the next election.
Which of the following if true , would most seriously weaken the above conclusion ?
a) Republicans were a minority in 1984 , but a Republican President was elected.
b) People tend to switch their votes at the last minute
c) People vote for the best candidate , not for a political party.
d) No one can predict how people will vote
e) It has been shown that 85% of Republicans vote in an election , compared to50 % of the democrats
It is a fact that athletes can attract sponsorship and make money and that participation in the Olympics can aid the process. On the basis that it is true that athletes are more and more attracted by the profit motive, the conclusion that the best athletes don’t compete in the Olympics is weakened
Even if the rate of increase in demand has slowed down from 10% per annum to5% per annum over the last five years , that means that demand is still increasing at 5% per annum, thus (A) doesn’t weaken the statement. Choice (B) introduces the matter of supply , but these reserves aren’t discovered recently , this does not affect the argument that stocks will be depleted unless new reserves found.
The fact that the authorities have no record of the long term good or damage of fluoridation is a significant weakness in their case.
It would weaken the conclusion the most. If most carbon dioxide is emitted by automobiles , then cutting industrial production or changing processes would only solve a small part of the problem.
85 percent of 38 % is 32 percent , while 50 percent of 62percent is 31percent : therefore it can be expected that more republicans will vote.(A) also weakens the conclusion but not as E. similarly D also weakens the conclusion but not as E.
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