Modern History- Part-II (1857-1905)1. 1857 revolt
2. Formation of INC
3. Important acts- GOI act 1858, Indian councils act-1861 and 1892
4. Important viceroys from 1857 to 1905
5. Objective Questions
Must read - Modern Indian History Part I: From 1757 to 1857
1857 revolt- causes and important personalities
- The 1857 Revolt sowed the seeds of Indian nationalism which continued till 1947. Some of the causes of the revolt are
- Doctrine of Lapse policy introduced by Dalhousie
- Introduction of some of the acts like Abolition of sati, widow remarriage act many felt that it as a threat to Hinduism
- Increasing activities of Christian missionaries
- Il-treatment of BahadhurShah-II by removing his name from coins. After that Lord Canning announced that after Bahadur Shah, the Mughal successors would not be called emperor and their status would be reduced to Prince.
- Destruction of Indian economy
- Revenue settlements like Zamindari system, Ryotwari system and Mahalwari system
The Beginning of the RevoltThe immediate cause of the revolt was introduction of greased cartridges. The new Enfield rifle had been introduced for the first time in the Indian army. Its cartridges had a greased paper cover whose end had to be bitten off before the cartridge was loaded into the rifle. The grease was composed of fat taken from beef and pig. The religious feelings of the Hindu and Muslim sepoys were terribly wounded. The sepoys believed that the government was deliberately trying to destroy their religious and cultural identity. Hence they raised the banner of revolt.
The events that led to the Revolt began on 29 March 1857 at Barrackpore. Mangal Pandey (a sepoy) refused to use the greased cartridges and killed his officer. Mangal Pandey was hanged. The regiment to which he belonged was disbanded and sepoys guilty of rebellion punished. Soon the revolt spread to other parts of the country
Place of 1857 revolt
Rani Laxmi Bai
Nanasaheb, Tantiya Thope
BahadhurShah-II and Bhakta Khan
Begum Hazarat Mahal
Allahabad and Banaras
Maulvi Liyakat Ali
Maulvi Ahamadullah- He declared revolt as Jihad against British
Formation of Indian National Congress:
- AO Hume, a retired civil servant in the British Government took the initiative to form an all-India organization. Thus, the Indian National Congress was founded and its first session was held at Bombay in 1885.
- On 28 December 1885, the Indian National Congress was founded at Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College in Bombay, with 72 delegates in attendance. The first meeting was originally scheduled for Pune but due to plague outbreak, the venue was shifted to Mumbai.
- The second session of Indian National Congress met at Calcutta in December 1886 under Dhadabhai Nauroji.
- First Muslim president of INC- Badiruddin Taiyabajji (3rd session of INC-1887)
- First women president of INC- Annie Besant (1917 INC Session)
- First Indian women president of INC- Sarojini Naidu (1925 INC session)
Important acts between 1857 to 1905:
- The Government of India Act 1858 marked the beginning of new chapter in the constitutional history of India. The Act known as the Act for the Good Government of India. Some of the important provisions
- Abolition of company rule and provided that India was to be governed directly and in the name of the crown.
- Creation of office of secretary for the state of India. Lord Stanley was made first Secretary of state for India
Indian council’s act-1861:
- It made a beginning of representative institutions by associating Indians in with the law-making process.
- Portfolio system was introduced through this act
- It empowered the Viceroy to issue ordinances
Indian council act-1892:The powers of the legislative councils were increased. The members could now discuss the budget without right to vote on it. They were also not allowed to ask supplementary questions
1. Lord canning-
- First viceroy of India
2. Lord Lytton:
- The first Famine Commission (1878-80) under Sir Richard Strachey was appointed
- In 1878, the Vernacular Press Act and arms act was passed which restricts the freedom of press
- Lord Lytton introduced uniform salt tax throughout British India
- The system of decentralization of finance that had begun in the time of Lord Mayo was continued during the time of Lord Lytton.
3. Lord Rippon:
- Introduction of Local self-government in 1882. He is known as father of local government in India
- He abolished Vernacular press act
- Lord Ripon introduced the Factory Act of 1881 to improve the service condition of the factory workers in India.
- Issue of Ilbert bill was happened during his reign
- Hunter commission (related to education was appointed by him)
- Lord Ripon was the most popular Viceroy that England ever sent to India. The Indians by and large hailed him as “Ripon the Good
4. Lord Curzon:
- He instituted a Police Commission in 1902 under the chairmanship of Sir Andrew Frazer.
- He passed a law called the Ancient Monuments Act, 1904 which made it obligatory on the part of the government and local authorities to preserve the monuments of archaeological importance and their destruction an offence.
- Curzon brought in the Indian Universities Act of 1904, which brought all the universities in India under the control of the government.
- He is responsible for partion of Bengal
Objective Questions:1. First president of Indian National congress
a. A O Hume
b. W C Banerjee
c. Dhadabhai Nauroji
Ans: W C Banerjee
2. Who was the Mughal emperor at the time of 1857 revolt?
a. Bahadur Shah-I
b. Bahadur Shah-II
c. Sha Alam-II
Ans: Bahadur Shah-II
3. Who is known as Father of Local government in India?
a. Lord Lytton
b. Lord Rippon
c. Lord Curzon
Ans: Lord Rippon
4. Who was the first secretary of state for India?
a. Lord Canning
b. Lord Bentick
c. Lord Stanley
Ans: Lord Stanley
5. First session of INC was held at
Ans: Mumbai (Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College)
6. Which charter act allowed Christian missionaries to preach their religion?
a. Charter act 1813
b. Charter act 1833
c. Charter act 1853
Ans: Charter act 1813
7. In Lucknow 1857 revolt was led by
a. Jhansi Laxmi Bhai
b. Begum Hazarat Mahal
c. Nana sahib
d. Kunwar Singh
Ans: Begum Hazarat Mahal
8. Who is the author of “Poverty and Un British rule in India?
a. Dadha Bhai Nauroji
b. W C Banerjee
c. AO Hume
Ans: Dadha Bhai Nauroji
Explanation: Dhadabhai Naoroji, known as the Grand Old Man of India. His book Poverty and Un-British Rule in India brought attention to the draining of India's wealth into Britain.
9. Who called 1857 revolt as First war of independence?
a. V Savarkar
b. R C Mujumdar
Ans: V Savarkar
10. In the end of 1857 revolt BahadhurShah-II was arrested and sent to
11. Who was the last governor general of India?
a. Lord William Bentick
b. Lord Dalhousie
c. Lord Canning
Ans: Lord Canning
12. On which day Mangal Pandey revolted against British?
a. 27th March 1857
b. 29th March 1857
c. 30th March 1857
Ans: 29th March 1857 (Barrackpore regiment)
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