Brief History of Sikh Empire:
- During the early years of the nineteenth century, the Sikh kingdom of Punjab was expanded and consolidated by Maharajah Ranjit Singh.
- Ranjit Singh was proclaimed as Maharaja of the Punjab on 12 April 1801 (to coincide with Vaisakhi), creating a unified political state.
- At its peak in the 19th century, the Empire extended from
- Western Tibet in the east
- Khyber Pass in the west to
- Mithankot in the south to
- Kashmir in the north.
After the death of Ranjit Singh, the empire was weakened by internal divisions and political mismanagement.
The Sikh Empire was divided into four provinces: Lahore, in Punjab, which became the Sikh capital, Multan, also in Punjab, Peshawar and Kashmir from 1799 to 1849.
(Maharaja Ranjit Singh Empire)
Finally, by 1849 the state was dissolved after the defeat in the Anglo-Sikh wars.
The military force of Sikh empire is known as Khalsa. The military system of Ranjit Singh combined the best of both old and new ideas. He strengthened the infantry and the artillery.
First Anglo-Sikh war:
- First Anglo-Sikh war was fought between Sikh Empire and East India Company.
- The war took place between 1845 and 1846
- British company emerged victorious in this war
Battle of Ferozeshah:
- The Battle took place in the year 1845 between English East India Company and Sikhs
- In this battle, East India Company was led by Sir Hugh Gough and Henry Hardinge and Sikh army was led by Lal Singh.
- British emerged victorious in this battle
- Battle of Aliwal also took place during first Anglo-Sikh empire
Battle of Sobraon:
- The battle took place between East India company army and Sikh Khalsa army
- This battle took place as a part of First Anglo-Sikh war
- The Sikhs were completely defeated, making this the decisive battle of the First Anglo-Sikh War.
Second Anglo-Sikh war:The second Anglo Sikh war took place in the year 1848 and1849
It resulted in the fall of the Sikh Empire
After the annexation of Punjab, it became the North-West Frontier Province, by the East India Company.
Battle of Chillianwala:
- The battle took place as a part of Second Anglo-Sikh war
- It took place in the year 1849
- The battle was one of the bloodiest fought by the British East India Company
Other Battles and years:
- Battle of ChillGujarat 1849
- Battle of Sobraon- 1846
- Battle of Ferozeshah-1845
- Battle of Aliwal-1846
- Battle of Mudki- 1845
- Battle of Gujarat-1849
- Battle of Saragrahi-1897
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