- From 2006 onwards every year World Economic Forum releases Global Gender Gap Index report. This report measures Gender gap across 144 countries in the world.
- Workplace or economic opportunity and
- Political representation.
Use of measuring Global Gender Gap index:Global Gender Gap index report helps in understanding how the countries across the world are distributing their resources and opportunities equitably between women and men, irrespective of their overall income.
Gender Index report-2017 High lights:
- Iceland stands in first position. The country has closed nearly 88% of its gap.
- Top 10 include Norway (2nd), Finland (3rd), Rwanda (4) and Sweden (5), Nicaragua (6) and Slovenia (7), Ireland (8), New Zealand (9) and the Philippines (10). The US dropped its ranking by four points to 49th position on the index.
- The global gender gap widened this year, for the first time since the World Economic Forum’s index started.
- Overall 68 percent of the global gender gap has been closed. This is a slight deterioration from 2016 when the gap closed was 68.3 percent.
- At current rate of progress, global gender gap will take 100 years to bridge, compared to 83 last year.
- The case is worse in terms of workplace gender divide as it will take 217 years to close.
What is India’s position in Global Gender Gap Index and key Highlights related to India?As per recent Global Gender Gap Index, India is ranked at 108th position. India has slipped 21 places on the World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap index compared to 87th of last year. The ranking, in fact, is the lowest since the WEF first started measuring the gender gap, in 2006.
- The main reason for fall of India rank is due to less participation of women in the economy and low wages.
- On an average 66% of women’s work in India is unpaid, compared to 12% of men’s.
- India ranked 15th in political empowerment.
- One of the positive aspect in the report is by comparing with last year report, India succeeded in fully closing its primary and secondary education enrolment gender gaps for the second year running and for the first time has nearly closed its tertiary education gender gap.
Which indicators make India slip in rankings?In 2017 Global Gender Gap Index report India recorded less score due to two indicators, Health and survival and Economic participation & opportunities for women make India’s least rank.
- In terms of ‘Economic Participation and Opportunities for Women’ India stands at 136th place out of 144 countries.
- In ‘Health and Survival’ India stands at 141 and continues to be in the bottom four.
- Unpaid work of women also contributes India’s lowest rank in Global Gender Gap index in 2017.
India and neighbouring countries:
- In Global Gender Gap index report
- Bangladesh stands at 47th position, holds the highest rank in South Asia.
- China stands at 100th rank
Measures to be taken to improve Global Gender gap index:
- For Political empowerment of women, 50% reservation for women in parliament and legislative assemblies need to be implemented.
- Programs like Bet Bachao Beti Padhao which has been launched to address the issue of declining Child Sex Ratio has to be implemented in a most effective manner.
- Women participation in economy could boost India’s GDP. An ILO report has shown that India can add $1 trillion to its economy by 2025 if it closes the wide gender gap in employment. Therefore continued efforts will be needed to achieve parity in economic opportunity and participation.
- Recently Iceland tables bill to make equal pay mandatory for men and women. Such type of bills need to be passed in India to increase economic participation of women.
- Also, there is a wide black and white gender distinction in occupations which needs to be rectified.
Questions for exams:1. Which of the following organisation releases Global Gender Gap index?
a. World Bank
c. World Economic Forum
2. What is the rank of India in Global Gender gap index?
3. Which of the following country stands first in Global Gender Gap index?
d. New Zealand
4. What is the rank of India in political empowerment as per Global Gender gap index?
5. In which state Bet Bachao Beti Padhao program was launched?
c. Uttar Pradesh
6. What is the sex ratio of India as per 2011 census?
7. India’s rank in 2017 Global Gender Gap index is 108, what is India’s rank in 2016?
8. In which of the following city headquarters of International Labour Organisation is located?
c. New York
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