Important Geographical Facts

Important Geographical Facts

Indian rivers & other names:

Name of the River Other Name
Indus Sindhu
Brahmaputra Dihang
Chenab Asikini, Chandrabhagha
Jhelum Vitasta, Hydaspes
Luni Sagarmati
Beas Vipasa, Hyphasis
Ravi Parusni, Airavati
Krishna Kanhapenna
Kosi Kausika
Narmada Namade
Ghaghara Karnali

Mouths of Rivers of the world

Name of the river Origin of the river
Nile Mediterranean Sea
Congo Atlantic Ocean
Amazon Atlantic Ocean
Volga Caspian Sea
Irrawaddy Andaman Sea
Thames North Sea
Mekong South China sea
Indus Arabian Sea
Danube Black sea
Rhine North sea

Names of Cyclones in different countries:

Origin of Cyclones Name
North Atlantic (including Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico) Hurricanes
Eastern and Central North Pacific Hurricanes
Western Northern Pacific Typhoons
Arabian Sea/Northern Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclones
South Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclones
Australia Willy-Willy 

Major Plates in the World:

Name of the plates
North American (with western Atlantic floor separated from the South American plate along the Caribbean islands) plate
South American (with western Atlantic floor separated from the North American plate along the Caribbean islands) plate
Pacific plate
India-Australia-New Zealand plate
Africa with the eastern Atlantic floor plate
Eurasia and the adjacent oceanic plate.

Minor Plates:

Name of the plate Located in
Cocos plate Between Central America and Pacific plate
Nazca plate Between South America and Pacific plate
Arabian plate Mostly the Saudi Arabian landmass
Philippine plate Between the Asiatic and Pacific plate
Caroline plate Between the Philippine and Indian plate (North of New Guinea)
Fuji plate North-east of Australia


  • The rise and fall of the ocean water at a particular place are called tides. 
  • Interval between two high tides or low tides is exactly 12 hours 25 minutes. Tides are produced as a result of the gravitational pull of the moon and the Sun on the earth.
  • The highest tides in the world occur in the Bay of Fundy in Nova Scotia, Canada. The tidal bulge is 15 - 16 m.

Lunar day:

  • Lunar day is equal to the period of one rotation of the earth on its axis with respect to the moon, or the duration of time between successive crossings of a meridian by the moon, about 24 hours 50 minutes.


  • A layer of the atmosphere lying between the Stratosphere and the Ionosphere is known as Mesosphere. In the mesosphere, temperature decreases as the altitude increases. 
  • The upper boundary of the mesosphere is the mesopause. 


  • The rigid part of the earth’s crust that extends from a depth of about 65km (40 miles) below the surface is known as Lithosphere. It consists Sial, the Sima, and the upper Mantle. 
  • Underneath it is ‘the softer, this layer known as the Asthenosphere. 


  • A group of islands is known as Archipelago. The name of World’s biggest Archipelago is Malay Archipelago.

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