Milestones of Computer History

Year Invention Inventor (s) Notes
16th Century Abacus China First Mechanical calculator
- Antikythera mechanism First known analog computer
1617 Napier’s Bones John Napier It is used for calculation of products and quotients of numbers and the technique was also called Rabdology
1620-30 Slide Rule: Slipstick in United States Circular Slide Rule: Edmund Gunter Modern Slide Rule: William Oughtred It is a mechanical analog computer
1642 Arithmetic Machine/ Pascal’s Calculator/ Pascaline Blaise Pascal It was a complicated set of gears that operated similarly to clock. It was designed to only perform addition.
1672-1694 Stepped Reckoner Gottfried Whilhelm Leibniz First calculator that could perform all four arithmetic operations addition, subtraction, multiplication and division
1801 Jacquard loom Joseph Marie Jacquard It used card of holes for weaving pattern. First mechanical loom Introduced Punch cards.
1823 Difference engine Charles Babbage It is an automatic mechanical calculator designed to tabulate polynomial functions.
1837 Analytical Engine Charles Babbage First mechanical general-purpose computer
1890 Tabulating Machine Herman Hollerith It was developed to help process data for the 1890 U.S. Census
1935 Z1 Konrad Zuse First freely programmable computer
1944 MARK – 1 Howard Alken and Grace Hopper First electro-mechanical computer
1939 ABC: Atanasoff Berry Computer John Atanasoff & Clifford Berry First automatic electronic digital computer. It used the Binary Number system of 1s and 0s
1946 ENIAC: Electronic Numerical Integartor and Computer John Presper Eckert & John W Mauchly First electronic general-purpose computer
1949 EDSAC: Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calulator John von Neumann First computer to store program
1949 EDVAC: Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer John Presper Eckert & John W Mauchly It was a binary serial computer with automatic addition, subtraction multplication, programmed division and automatic checking with an ultrasonic serial memory.
1951 UNIVAC: Universal Automatic Computer John Presper Eckert & John W. Mauchy First general-purpose computer for commercial use
1947 Transistors John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley It is a semiconductor device that could replace a vacuum tube. First used in IBM 650
1961 ICs: Integrated Circuits Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce It can replaced a hundred of transistors First used in 1BM 360.
1970 Microprocessors Marcian Hoff, Masatoshi Shima and Stanley Mazor The Intel 4004 (four-thousand-four) is a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU) released by Intel Corporation in 1971. It was the first
1964 Computer Mouse & graphical user interface (GUI) Douglas Engelbart This marks the evolution of the computer from a specialized machine for scientsts and mathematicians to technology that is more accessible to the general public
1970 Intel 1103: DRAM chip Intel company First Dynamic Access Memory (DRAM) chip
1971 Floppy Disk Alan Shugart & IBM team Nicknamed the Floppy for its flexibility
1973 Ethernet Robert Metcalfe & Xerox Its connects multiple computers and other hardware
1974-1975 Personal Computer: Scelbi, Mark-8, Altair, IBM 5100 Scelbi Computer Consulting Company, Jonathan Titus, Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS), IBM (respectively) The first consumer computers
The IBM 5100 becomes the first commercially available portable computer
1976-1977 Apple I,II Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak Apple I, the first computer with a single-circuit board Apple Il offers color graphics and incorporates an audio cassette drive for storage
1981 MS-DOS Computer Operating System Bill Gates and Paul Allen It introduces a whole new language to the general public. Typing and various cryptic commands gradually becomes part of daily work. People discover the backslash () key
1981 Acorn IBM First IBM personal computer
1983-1984 Lisa, Apple Macintosh Apple Inc. First personal computer with a Graphical User Interface (GUI)
1985 Microsoft Windows Microsoft Corporation Microsoft ships Windows 1.0. Now, rather than typing MS-DOS commands, you just move a mouse to point and click your way through screens, or 'windows. Bill Gates says, "lt is unique software designed for the serious PC user."
1990 Hyper Text Markup Language(HTML) and World Wide Web(WWW) Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau WWWW is an information system of interlinked hypertext documents that are accessed via the Internet. It has also commonly become known simply as the Web
2003 AMD’s Athion 64 Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. First 64-bit processor
2004 Mozilla’s Firefox 1.0 Mozilla Foundation and contributors Mozilla Corporation It challenges Microsoft's Internet Explorer, the dominant web browsers
2006 MacBook Pro Apple Inc. First Intel-based, dual-core mobile computer
2007 iPhone Apple Inc. Original Smartphone era begins from here.
2008 Android Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears and Google T-Mobile G1 Is the First-ever Android device, had quirky design elements like the swing-out keyboard and the "chin
2010 iPad Apple Inc. Apple releases the original iPad
2011 3D transistors Intel Corporation Intel announces the commercialisation of 3D transistors
2012 Ultrabook Intel Corporation It is a specification and trademarked brand by Intel for a class of high- end subnotebooks which are designed to feature reduced bulk without compromising battery life
2014 Intel®CoreTM i7-5960X Intel Corporation Intel unveiled its first eight-core desktop processor.
2015 Ubuntu operating system Canonical Ltd. Ubuntu community contributors, The carrier Advisory Group The BQ Aquaris E4.5 Ubuntu Edition becomes the first phone running the Ubuntu operating system to be released February 11, 2015

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