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Socio-Economic Caste Census 2011: Summary

Published on Friday, January 11, 2019
Socio-Economic Caste Census 2011: Summary


  • SECC is the study of socio economic status of urban and rural households and allows ranking based on predefined parameters. This is the first ever post-independence socio-economic caste census which began on 29th June 2011 from Sankhola village of West Bengal. The results were released in July 2015. 
  • It has three components conducted separately overall under the Department of Rural Development. 
    • Rural data conducted by the Department of Rural Development, 
    • Urban data under the Ministry of Housing and 
    • Urban Poverty Alleviation and Caste census under Ministry of Home Affairs. 
  • The objective behind conducting SECC was to assess the population that is below the poverty line. The first paperless SECC was conducted in 640 districts. The data from the SECC is used for several government schemes.

Criteria Used

SECC used parameters laid down by the SR Hashim committee appointed by then Planning Commission of India those are
  1. Automatic exclusion on basis of 14 parameters
  2. Automatic inclusion on basis of 5 parameters
  3. Grading of deprivation on basis of seven criteria

Key Findings

  • Out of 24.39cr households 17.91cr live in villages. The economic status was computed through seven indicators covering aspects of landlessness, housing, source of income, disability etc.
  • 49% of households considered poor in terms of facing deprivation.
  • Over 90% of rural India does not have salaried job.
  • Less than 10% of students make it to the higher secondary education or above and only 3.41% households are there having at least 1 member as a graduate.
  • 30% of rural households depend upon cultivation as their main source of earning / income.
  • 51.14% derive their sustenance from manual work.
  • 56.25% of rural households do not have agricultural land.
  • 40% of land holding is not irrigated, 4% own mechanized agricultural equipment and only 10% own irrigational equipment.
  • 4.6% rural households pay income tax.
  • 36% of rural people in India are illiterate.
  • In this census data of transgender was also recorded for the first time which comprises of only 0.1% of India’s rural population.
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