**Profit and loss problems involve various terms like cost price, selling price, marked price etc. Basically, it is a difference between selling price and cost price**.

Cost price is the price paid to purchase an article or a product or we can say it is a cost incurred in manufacturing an article.

Selling price is the price at which a product is sold.

Profit or gain = Selling price(S.P) - Cost price(C.P)

Similarly, If an article is sold at loss of 18%, then by using the second formula, you can find that S.P. is 82% of C.P.

Note: Here is an example to find gain in case of dishonesty.

Problem 1: A dishonest dealer professes to sell his goods at cost price but he uses a weigh 960 grammes for 1 kg. How to calculate the gain percentage?

### Profit and loss formulas used in profit and loss:

**1)**Generally, profit is calculated as:

Profit or gain = Selling price(S.P) - Cost price(C.P)

#### SP Formula

⇒ Selling Price = Cost Price + Profit**2)**Similarly, Loss = Cost price - Selling price

**3)**Gain percentage(%)

**4)**Loss percentage(%)

**5)**There is a direct relationship between selling price and cost price:

__For__**If an article is sold at a gain of 27%, then by using the first formula, you can find that S.P. is 127% of C.P.**

__Example:__Similarly, If an article is sold at loss of 18%, then by using the second formula, you can find that S.P. is 82% of C.P.

**6)**If a person sells two commodities at same prices. On one he gains x% and loses x% on another, then as a whole he will be in loss and the loss percentage will be equal to:

Note: Here is an example to find gain in case of dishonesty.

Problem 1: A dishonest dealer professes to sell his goods at cost price but he uses a weigh 960 grammes for 1 kg. How to calculate the gain percentage?

**Solution:**

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