Basic Financial Terms A-Z
AAGM - Annual General Meeting, it is the year meeting held by every registered company. Agenda is to explain the performance during the year, presentation of annual financial statements, voting on important financial decisions. Any shareholder can participate in AGM.
Monopoly - A situation in market where there are many buyers but a single seller exist.
Money market - Market dealing in short term lending and borrowing of funds. Also know as Cash market.
Monetary policy - Set of actions by Central bank of a country ( RBI in case of India) to control the supply of money. These actions included increase in interest rate, open market purchases, changing commercial bank's reserve funds ratio (SLR) etc.
Marginal cost - Additional cost to produce an extra unit of product.
Margin - Amount of profit added to cost price of each unit of a product
Margin call - Margin call term is used in two situations. First - Whenever a lender gives a secured loan and loan value is a fixed percentage of loan then whenever the value of security decrease below the decided ratio then lender given a margin call to borrower to bring loan to security ratio to decided level. Secondly in stock exchanges traders trades in various securities by paying 20-30% of the value of securities. Whenever the value of security goes below that margin, broker gives margin call to trader to bring the margin to desired level.
Mark-to-market - As explained above while defining margin call, value of assets in case of securities is measured on daily basis. If the trader's asset value increased, increased value is transferred to his account. In case the value of assets decreased margin call is made to adjust the margin.
NPV - Net Present Value is aggregate of future cash flows from a project minus total costs. NPV is a capital budgeting technique used to check feasibility of projects.
Net profit - Net profit is Gross profit minus indirect cost. See indirect costs
Net worth - Net assets - Total liabilities
Nationalization - When Government takes control of a business, this is known as nationalization.
NAV - Net Assets Value is mutual fund's per unit exchange traded price
Opportunity cost - Additional cost in production of an addition unit of product.
Options - Option is right to buy at pre-determined price at a future date. Option is used for hedging. Options safeguards option-holder from future price fluctuations.
Overdraft - Facility given by a bank which allows its customers to withdraw more money than account balance. Overdraft generally have high rate of interest as borrower can demand and return the loan anytime.
Preference shares - A type of shares having no voting rights and have higher rate of dividend.
Ponzi schemes - It is a kind of fraud scheme which use Network marketing as a tool. Investors are paid out of new investments. These schemes end when new investments stop coming and large number of investors wants to withdraw their money. Latest Ponzi scheme in India was "Speak Asia".
PLR - Prime lending rate is the minimum rate of interest that is to be charged by a bank. Each bank decides its own PLR.
Stagnation - An economic situation of slow economic growth, high rate unemployment and inflation.
Shorting - Selling securities which an investors don't have in expectation of price drop