Tenses - Easy and Concise English Grammar Notes

In a series of sharing English grammar notes, today I am sharing Tenses.

tenses


Present continuous Present simple
present of be + active participle base form/s-form
I am reading
you/we/they are reading
he/she/it is reading
I/you/we/they read
he/she/it reads
Negative
I am not reading
you/we/they are not reading
he/she/it is not reading
I/you/we they do not read
he/she/it does not read
Questions
am I reading?
are you/we/they reading?
is he/she it reading?
do I/you/we/they read?
does he/she/it read?
Past Continuous Present Perfect Continuous
Past of be + active participle Present of have + been + active participle
I/he/she/it was flying you/we/they were flying I/you/we/they have been waiting
he/she/it has been waiting
Negative
I/he/she/it was not flying
you/we/they were not flying
I/you/we/they have not been waiting
he/she/it has not been waiting
Questions
was I/he/she/it flying?
were you/we/they flying?
have I/you/we/they been waiting? has he/she/it been waiting?
Present Perfect Past simple:
present of have + past participle Past form
I/you/we/they have opened
he/she/it has opened
someone opened
Negative
I/you/we/they have not opened
he/she/it has not opened
someone did not open
Questions
have I/you/we/they opened?
has he/she/it opened?
did someone open?
Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous
had + past participle had been + active participle
someone had invited someone had been going
Negative
someone had not invited someone had not been going
Questions
had someone invited? had someone been going?

#Present

Present Simple 

Ram plays cricket.

Sub  +  V +  Object

Note: 's' is used according to subject, always use 's' if subject is singular



Present Continuous 

Ram is playing cricket.

 Is / Am / Are +  V1 + ing

Sub + V1 + ing+ Object

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Ram has been playing cricket since morning or for two hours.

{ Has + Been +  V1 + ing + time [since or for] }

Present Perfect Tense

Ram has played cricket.

Has / Have + V3 + Object 

#Past Tense

Past Indefinite 

Ram played cricket. [ Sub + V2 ]

Past Continuous 

Ram was playing cricket. [ Sub + Was / Were +  V1 + ing  ]

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Ram had been playing cricket since morning or for two hours.

{ Had + Been +  V1 + ing + time [since or for] }

Past Perfect Tense

Ram had played cricket. [ Sub + Had + V3 ]

#Future Tense

Future Indefinite 

Modals ( will/shall) always use with 1st form of verb.
Ram will play cricket.

Future Continuous 

Ram will be playing cricket.

Sub + will/shall+be+ V1 + ing+ Object

Future Perfect 

Ram will have played cricket.
(always use 'have' with 'will')

Future Perfect Continuous 

Ram will have been playing cricket since morning.

Example : I ___(return) my book in the library yesterday.

The case of after and before

  • The passenger ____ reached the station before the train _______(arrive).[had,reached (V2) ]
  • The doctor came after the patient died(V3).

Conditional Statements

If  +  Present Indefinite + Future Indefinite + Obj

If + Past + Indefinite + would +  V+ Obj

If + Past Perfect + would + Have +  V+ Obj

Examples:

  1. If I will go to Delhi, I will Meet her.  [Correct:If I go to Delhi]                                                         
  2. She will come to meet me as soon as I will reached Delhi.[Correct: I reach Delhi]                                                                                                                                                                                   Conditional Words
    • As soon as 
    • If
    • As If
    • If wish
    • Unless
    • Until
    • When
    • When ever

  3. Unless you will not take care of yours.you will not recover.                                                              
  4. Until the train will not gets the signal. It will not arrive.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   [ always use 's' or 'es' with verb according to the subject ]                                                         
  5. Ram had a car.    [ had = main verb (past indefinite)]                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Ram had had a car. [past perfect]              [ has had had ; be was been ]                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sub + Main Verb + V3 + Obj                                                                                                           
  6. She was a good girl. [past Indefinite]                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         She had been a good girl.[past perfect]                                                                                                    
  7. If I was a bird, I would fly in the sky. [ Correct :were]                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Present wish = Past indefinite                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  [ never depends on subject]                                                                                                                 
  8. If we had  ___ mohan in our team we would have won the match. [ Correct : had ]                                                                                                                                                                                     Past wish = Past Perfect                                                                                                                          
  9. If I had seen you, I would ____ stop my car.  [ Correct: Have ]                                                          
  10. He scolded me as if he was my boss.               [ Correct: Were ]                                                                                                                                                                                                                         [ Never use 'was' in conditional statement after if or as ]                                                                                                                                                                  


Verbs and Tenses - Bank Exams Today


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