Tenses - Easy and Concise English Grammar Notes

Published on Wednesday, June 03, 2015
In a series of sharing English grammar notes, today I am sharing Tenses.


Present continuous Present simple
present of be + active participle base form/s-form
I am reading
you/we/they are reading
he/she/it is reading
I/you/we/they read
he/she/it reads
I am not reading
you/we/they are not reading
he/she/it is not reading
I/you/we they do not read
he/she/it does not read
am I reading?
are you/we/they reading?
is he/she it reading?
do I/you/we/they read?
does he/she/it read?
Past Continuous Present Perfect Continuous
Past of be + active participle Present of have + been + active participle
I/he/she/it was flying you/we/they were flying I/you/we/they have been waiting
he/she/it has been waiting
I/he/she/it was not flying
you/we/they were not flying
I/you/we/they have not been waiting
he/she/it has not been waiting
was I/he/she/it flying?
were you/we/they flying?
have I/you/we/they been waiting? has he/she/it been waiting?
Present Perfect Past simple:
present of have + past participle Past form
I/you/we/they have opened
he/she/it has opened
someone opened
I/you/we/they have not opened
he/she/it has not opened
someone did not open
have I/you/we/they opened?
has he/she/it opened?
did someone open?
Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous
had + past participle had been + active participle
someone had invited someone had been going
someone had not invited someone had not been going
had someone invited? had someone been going?


Present Simple 

Ram plays cricket.

Sub  +  V +  Object

Note: 's' is used according to subject, always use 's' if subject is singular

Present Continuous 

Ram is playing cricket.

 Is / Am / Are +  V1 + ing

Sub + V1 + ing+ Object

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Ram has been playing cricket since morning or for two hours.

{ Has + Been +  V1 + ing + time [since or for] }

Present Perfect Tense

Ram has played cricket.

Has / Have + V3 + Object 

#Past Tense

Past Indefinite 

Ram played cricket. [ Sub + V2 ]

Past Continuous 

Ram was playing cricket. [ Sub + Was / Were +  V1 + ing  ]

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Ram had been playing cricket since morning or for two hours.

{ Had + Been +  V1 + ing + time [since or for] }

Past Perfect Tense

Ram had played cricket. [ Sub + Had + V3 ]

#Future Tense

Future Indefinite 

Modals ( will/shall) always use with 1st form of verb.
Ram will play cricket.

Future Continuous 

Ram will be playing cricket.

Sub + will/shall+be+ V1 + ing+ Object

Future Perfect 

Ram will have played cricket.
(always use 'have' with 'will')

Future Perfect Continuous 

Ram will have been playing cricket since morning.

Example : I ___(return) my book in the library yesterday.

The case of after and before

  • The passenger ____ reached the station before the train _______(arrive).[had,reached (V2) ]
  • The doctor came after the patient died(V3).

Conditional Statements

If  +  Present Indefinite + Future Indefinite + Obj

If + Past + Indefinite + would +  V+ Obj

If + Past Perfect + would + Have +  V+ Obj


  1. If I will go to Delhi, I will Meet her.  [Correct:If I go to Delhi]                                                         
  2. She will come to meet me as soon as I will reached Delhi.[Correct: I reach Delhi]                                                                                                                                                                                   Conditional Words
    • As soon as 
    • If
    • As If
    • If wish
    • Unless
    • Until
    • When
    • When ever

  3. Unless you will not take care of yours.you will not recover.                                                              
  4. Until the train will not gets the signal. It will not arrive.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   [ always use 's' or 'es' with verb according to the subject ]                                                         
  5. Ram had a car.    [ had = main verb (past indefinite)]                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Ram had had a car. [past perfect]              [ has had had ; be was been ]                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sub + Main Verb + V3 + Obj                                                                                                           
  6. She was a good girl. [past Indefinite]                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         She had been a good girl.[past perfect]                                                                                                    
  7. If I was a bird, I would fly in the sky. [ Correct :were]                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Present wish = Past indefinite                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  [ never depends on subject]                                                                                                                 
  8. If we had  ___ mohan in our team we would have won the match. [ Correct : had ]                                                                                                                                                                                     Past wish = Past Perfect                                                                                                                          
  9. If I had seen you, I would ____ stop my car.  [ Correct: Have ]                                                          
  10. He scolded me as if he was my boss.               [ Correct: Were ]                                                                                                                                                                                                                         [ Never use 'was' in conditional statement after if or as ]                                                                                                                                                                  

Verbs and Tenses - Bank Exams Today


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