- Encouraging self-employment
- Providing supplementary wage employment
Planning commission in 2012 reduced the poverty line to Rs- 28.65 per capita daily consumption in cities and Rs- 22.42 in rural areas.
Followings are some schemes of Poverty alleviation:
Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP):
- To eliminate rural poverty by providing income-generated assets to the poorest of the poor.
- Started in 1978-79.
- Main aim is to create sustainable opportunities for self-employment in the rural sector.
- Assistance is given in the form of subsidy by the government.
- It is funded on 50:50 basis by the centre and the state.
National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA):
- Came into force in 2006.
- It was later modified as the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) in October 2, 2009.
- It is an Indian labour law and social security measure that aims to guarantee the “right to work”.
- It was started to enhance the livelihood security in rural areas by providing at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year.
- If work is not provided within 15 days of applying, applicants are entitled to an unemployment allowance.
- Recently, Finance Minister Arun Jaitley announced Rs- 48000cr for the MGNREGA.
National Maternity Benefit Scheme:
- It is for the family below the poverty line.
- Implemented by states and union territories.
- It provides a sum of Rs-500 to a pregnant woman for the first two live births.
- It was later changed into Janani Suraksha Yojana with Rs-1440 for every institutional birth.
National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS):
- To provide pension to old people, above the age of 65.
- Came into effect on 15 august 1995.
- Initially, 200 rupees per month was given but later it was changed to 500 rupees as per as 2011-12 budget.
Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY):
- It is a comprehensive version of previously launched “Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY)”.
- Started on 1 April 1999.
- Main objective: - For the development of rural areas.
- Secondary objective: - To give out sustained wage employment.
- This was only for the below poverty line.
National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS):
- Started in August 1955.
- Sponsored by the state government.
- Later it was transferred to the state sector scheme from 2002-03.
- It is under the community and rural development.
- It provides a sum of 20000 rupees to a person of family who becomes the head of the family after the death of its primary breadwinner.
- Started in 1999-2000 by the central government.
- Rs-100cr was allocated during 2000-01.
- It mostly covers groups of “poorest of the poor” and “indigent senior citizens”.
Employment Generation Schemes in India
MGNREGA:Already discussed above.
Swarnjayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY):
- Started in 1999.
- For the self-employment of the rural poor.
- Later it became IRDP.
Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY):
- Started on 25 December 2000.
- Comes under the authority of the minister of rural development.
Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar:
- Started on 1 December, 1997.
- To provide employment to urban unemployed and under-employed through the set up of self-employment ventures.
- Centrally sponsored.
Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP):
- To generate continuous and sustainable employment opportunities in rural and urban areas.
- Announced on 15 August 2008 by PM.
Food for Work Programme:It was started in 2001 to provide food through wage employment in the drought affected areas in eight states.
Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY):
- It came in existence by merging Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY) and Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS).
- Launched in September 2001.
- To provide additional wage employment in the rural areas.
Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP):
- It was started in 1983
- The aim was to provide employment to landless farmers and labourers.
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