Important Environmental Agencies in India

In this article, the following are discussed:

  • Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change:
  • National Green Tribunal
  • Central Pollution Control Board

Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change:

  • Established in: 1985
  • Current Minister- Dr Harsh Vardhan
  • The ministry acts as a nodal agency for the planning, promotion, co-ordination and overseeing the implementation of India's environmental and forestry policies and programmes
  • The Ministry also serves as the nodal agency in the country for the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), South Asia Co-operative Environment Programme (SACEP), International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) and for the follow-up of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED)

National Green Tribunal:

  • Established in-2010
  • Principal Place of Sitting-New Delhi
  • Other places of sitting- Bhopal, Pune, Kolkata and Chennai
  • First Chairperson of NGT- Justice Lokeshwar Singh Panta
  • Present chairperson-Jawad Rahim
  • The National Green Tribunal was established in 2010 under the National Green Tribunal Act 2010. India is the third country to establish a tribunal related to the environment. Earlier Australia and New Zealand have such a system.
  • New Delhi is the Principal Place of Sitting of the Tribunal and other four place of sitting of the Tribunals are-Chennai, Bhopal and Pune
  • One of the important feature of National Green Tribunal is it does not bound to procedure laid down in Code of Civil Procedure, 1908. It is generally guided by principles of natural justice.
  • The objective of National Green Tribunal is the effective and faster disposal of cases relating to  environmental protection conservation of forests and other natural resources. 

Composition:

As per Nation Green Tribunal act, NGT consists of a
  • Full-time chairperson
  • Judicial members 
  • Expert members
In NGT, the minimum number of judicial and expert member alloted is ten in each category and the maximum number is twenty in each category.
To be appointed as chairperson or judicial member of a NGT, a person must be a judge of the Supreme Court of India or Chief Justice of High Court 
Even existing or retired judge of High Court is qualified to be appointed as a Judicial Member in NGT

Functions:

  • National Green Tribunal is established as a specialized body to solve environmental problems that arises from various projects
  • It has special powers to enforce any legal right relating to environment and giving relief and compensation for damages to persons
  • NGT has a dedicated jurisdiction in environmental matters to provide speedy environmental justice
  • The Tribunal is mandated to make and endeavour for disposal of applications or appeals finally within 6 months of filing of the same. 

Central Pollution Control Board

  • Established-1974
  • Head Quarters-New Delhi
  • Number of zonal offices-7
  • Current Chairman-S.P. Singh Parihar
  • Central Pollution Control Board was established in the year 1974 under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974.
  • Apart from Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, Central Pollution Control Board is also entrusted with the powers and functions under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.

Functions:

  • The main function of Central Pollution Control Board is to coordinate the activities of the State Pollution Control Boards
  • To provide technical assistance and guidance to State Pollution Control Boards and also resolves disputes among them. 
  • It acts as the apex organisation in country in the field of pollution control, as a technical wing of MoE
  • t also runs country wide programs of ambient air quality monitoring known as National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP)
The CPCB performs its various functions through the following nine major project\ budget heads.
  • Pollution assessment (survey and monitoring) R&D and laboratory management
  • Development of standards and guidelines for industry-specific emissions and effluents standards
  • Training
  • Information database management and library
  • Pollution control technology
  • Pollution control enforcement
  • Mass awareness and publications
  • Hazard waste management

Model Questions:

1. In which year National Green Tribunal was formed?
a. 2008
b. 2010
c.2012
d. 2014
Ans: C

2. Which of the following organization runs National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP)?
a. National Green Tribunal
b. Central Pollution control board
c. CISR
d. None of the above
Ans: B

3. Who among the following was the first chairman of National Green Tribunal?
a. Jawad Rahim
b. S.P. Singh Parihar
c. Deepak Misra
d. Lokeshwar Singh Panta
Ans: d

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