Use of Infinitive
1. Following verbs when used in active voice, take infinitive without to.Bid, let, make, feel, watch, behold, hear, overhear, notice, observe, see, know. Eg:
- She bade me go.
- Let her sing.
- I made him sing.
- I didn’t notice him go.
- He was made to sing.
- I was bidden to go.
- She was let sing.
2. Following words take bare infinitive after them.Had better, would rather, would sooner, sooner than, rather than, had sooner.
- He had better withdraw.
- You would rather eat.
3. Bare infinitive is used after conjunction ‘than’.
- She is better able to speak than write.
- He is stronger than me.
4. Have/has/had + noun/pronoun, is followed by a bare infinitive.
- I will have him realize his mistake.
- I had him know his mistakes.
5. ‘But’ and ‘except’ take the bare infinitive when they follow do+ nothing /anything/everything.
- I can do nothing but protest.
- He did nothing but cry.
6. If two infinitives are joined by ‘and’, the ‘to’ of the second infinitive is usually dropped.Eg:
- I intend to sit in my room and read novels.
Rules for GerundA preposition is always followed by a gerund not by an infinitive. This is a good rule. It has no exceptions. If we want to use a verb after a preposition, it must be a gerund. It is impossible to use an infinitive after preposition.
- He is fond of fishing.
- She is good at cooking.
Use of Unattached or Dangling ParticipleA participle is a verbal adjective, so it must be attached to some noun or pronoun. It means it must have a proper subject of reference. If the participle is not attached to some noun or pronoun it is called dangling participle.
Look at the following sentence
- Waiting for the train, a brick fell on my feet.
A participle linked in this way to the wrong noun/pronoun is said to be misrelated or the participle ‘waiting’ has no noun or pronoun to which it is attached.
The above sentence should have been written as follow.
- While I was waiting for the train, a brick fell on my feet.
- Standing near the gate, a dog caught her. (Incorrect)
- While she was standing near the gate, a dog caught her. (Correct)
How to correct this sentence?(a) One option would be to change the subject so that it names the actor that the modifier implies:
- When watching films, I find commercials especially irritating.
- When I am watching films, commercials are especially irritating.
- Being a cold morning I didn’t go to office. (Incorrect)
- It being a cold morning, I didn’t go to office. (Correct)
- The morning being cold, I didn’t go to office. (Correct)
- Considering the price, the quality of the cloth is good.
- Speaking roughly, the distance between Kerala and Bangalore is 500kms.
- Taking every point into consideration, the proposal is very attractive.
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