Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2019: Illuminating Inequalities

Multidimensional Poverty Index 2019: Illuminating Inequalities
  • The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) is released every year jointly by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI). The 2019 Multidimensional Poverty Index Illuminating Inequalities covers 101 countries. It means the index provides data of 76 per cent of the world population.
  • The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) provides data about poverty across the world and also monitors the progress towards Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 1. The index aims to reduce poverty across the world. The MPI index uses 10 indicators in Health, Education and Standard of living.
  • The 2019 MPI index highlights that the traditional concept of poverty is outdated and labelling countries as rich and poor is an oversimplification. As the name of the 2019 MPI report suggests, the report puts light on disparities in how people experience poverty across the world.
  • The report has selected 10 countries for which changes over time have been analyzed. These 10 countries are- India, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Haiti, Nigeria, Peru, Vietnam and Pakistan.


Global Findings-

  • The Index founded that across 101 countries, 1.3 billion people (23.1 %) are multidimensionally poor.
  • Half of these 1.3 billion multidimensionally poor people are children under the age of 18.
  • Two-thirds of these multidimensionally poor people i.e. 886 million people live in middle-income countries.
  • The report highlights the variation in multidimensional poverty within countries.
  • Data about child poverty in South-Asia reveals that 10.7 per cent of girls in the region are out of school and live in a multidimensionally poor household.
  • 22.7 per cent of children under age 5 experience intrahousehold inequality in South Asia while over a third of children under age 5 experiences have such inequality in Pakistan.
  • India and Cambodia have reduced their MPI values the fastest among the 10 selected countries.
  • The index highlights inequalities in MPI values across the world by giving the example of Egypt and Paraguay. Both these countries have similar MPI values, but inequality among multidimensionally poor people is considerably higher in Paraguay.
  • There are 94 Million multidimensionally poor people in Upper-middle income countries, 792 million in lower-middle-income countries and 440 million in low-income countries.
  • Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia have the largest proportions of multidimensionally poor people with 84.5 per cent of all multidimensionally poor population.
  • Out of the 10 selected countries, the bottom 40 per cent are improving the Multidimensional Poverty Index attainments faster than the total population.

India Specific Findings-

  • India is one of the 10 countries selected for analysis. The index shows India and Cambodia have reduced their MPI values the fastest.
  • In India, Jharkhand reduced multidimensional poverty from 74.9 per cent to 46.5 per cent between 2005-06 and 2015-16.
  • India is among the countries which have significantly reduced deprivations in all 10 indicators. Other countries who have reduced deprivations are Ethiopia and Peru. India has improved in cooking fuel, nutrition, assets and sanitation.
  • In India, poverty reduction in rural areas has outpaced that in urban areas. Same is the case with Cambodia, Haiti and Peru.
  • Child poverty has reduced faster than adult poverty in India, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Haiti and Peru.

Quick Fact-

  • For the first time, MPI was developed in the year 2010 by the Collaboration of Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
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