Schemes of Rural India: Highlights

Schemes of Rural India........Highlights

1. Prime Minister Arogya Yojana (PMAY G)

PMAY-G was launched by the Hon'ble PM Narendra Modi on 20th November with the objective of acheiving " Housing For All by 2022" that aims to provide a pucca house, with all basic amenities, to all those houseless householders living in kutcha and dilapidated house, by 2022. The immediate object of the scheme is to acheive the objective of providing 1 crore houses in three years from 2016-17 to 2018- 19, combined with basic amenities of piped drinking water, electricity connection, LPG
gas connection etc. In order to ensure the objectivity and verifiability of the scheme, efforts have been made to ensure that assistance is targeted at those who are genuinely deprived. Thus, instead of selecting a beneficiary from among the BPL households PMGAY-G selects beneficiary using housing deprivation parameters in the Socio Economic and Caste Census (SECC), 2011 which is to be verified by the Gram Sabhas. Also, for better quality of construction, Nation Technical Support Agency (NTSA) have been set up at the national level. Moreover, one of the major constraints in quality house construction is the lack of the sufficient number of skilled masons. To overcome this, a pan-India training and certification programme of Masons has been launched in the States/UTs.

2. Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana (PMGSY)

The Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY), was launched by the Govt. of India as a part of a poverty alleviation strategy to provide connectivity to unconnected Habitations. Govt. of India is trying to set high and uniform technical and management standards for facilitating development and planning at State level to ensure sustainable management of the rural roads network.
As per the latest by the Governments of States under a survey to identify Core Network as part of the PMGSY programme, it has been estimated that 1.67 lakh Unconnected Habitations are eligible for coverage under the programme. This involves construction of about 3.71 lakh kms. Of New Connectivity roads and 3.68 lakh km. eligible for upgradation.It is important to note the following acheivements of State under PMGSY in the FY 2017-18.
  1. Odisha, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh awarded for constructing highest road length in plain areas.
  2. Uttarakhand, Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh awarded for constructing highest road length in North-Eastern & Himalayan States. 
  3. Meghalaya, Tripura and Himachal Pradesh awarded for best overall performance in terms of quality of roads inspected by NQMs in North-Eastern & Himalayan States.
  4. Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Chhattisgarh awarded for best overall performance in terms of quality of roads inspected by NQMs in plain areas.
  5. Assam, Meghalaya and Himachal Pradesh awarded for Maximum length constructed using Green Technology in North-Eastern & Himalayan States. 
  6. Madhya Pradesh, Odisha and Rajasthan awarded for Maximum length constructed with Green Technology in plain areas. 
  7. Assam, Uttarakhand and Jammu & Kashmir awarded for connecting maximum habitations in North-Eastern & Himalayan States. 
  8. Bihar, Odisha, and Jharkhand awarded for connecting maximum habitations in plain areas. 

3. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), enacted in 2005 is the largest work guarantee programme in the world which was launched with the primary objective of guaranteeing 100 days of employment every year to rural households. Also, it aims at ensuring sustainable development to address causes of chronic poverty through the ‘works’ (projects). The scheme also focuses on strengthening the process of decentralisation by giving a significant role to Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) in planning and implementation these works. However, MGNREGA has reached a major milestone by geotagging one crore assets created under it. The scale of assets created under MGNREGA is estimated to be about 2.82 crore since the financial year 2006-07. In January 2017, Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh became the first district in the country to geotag all the assets created under MGNREGA. Geotagging is the process of adding geographical information to various media in the form of metadata usually consists of coordinates like latitude and longitude.

4. DeenDayal Antiyodaya Yojana- National Rural Livelihood Mission (DAY-NRLM)

DAY-NRLM is a poverty alleviation programme to promote self-employment and organization of rural poor. It was implemented by the Union Ministry of Rural Development with the objective of organizing the rural poor into SHGs and make them capable for self-employment. However, it has a special focus on women empowerment. NRLM set out with an agenda to cover 7 Crore rural households, spread across 600 districts, 6000 blocks, 2.5 lakh Gram Panchayats and 6 lakh villages in the country through self-managed Self Help Groups (SHGs) in a period of 8-10 years.

The Mahila Kisan Sashakthikaran Pariyojana (MKSP) 

The Mahila Kisan Sashakthikaran Pariyojana (MKSP) was launched by the Government of India to improve the status of women in agriculture and bridge the gender gap that still exists in the agricultural based indian economy. It was launched in 2010-2011, through the initiation of Aajeevika – National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM) in order to create sustainable livelihood institutions around agriculture and allied activities. In August 2011, GREEN Foundation became an implementation agency of MKSP, working in the state of Karnataka with 3000 women farmers from Chitradurga district and 2000 from Ramanagara district.

Aajeevika Grameen Express Yojana

Aajeevika Grameen Express Yojana, launched by the Government of India as part of the Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM) with the objective of providing safe and affordable rural transport services to connect remote villages with key services and amenities such as access to markets, education and health for the overall economic development of backward rural areas. This has also provided an additional avenue of livelihood for SHGs. It was implemented across the country in all States and Union Territories except Chandigarh and Delhi by Union Ministry of Rural Development. It is important to note that AGAY is one of the world’s largest initiatives The scheme will be implemented in 250 blocks in the country on a pilot basis for a time duration of 3 years ranging from 2017-18 to 2019-20.

5. Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (DDU-GKY)

  • The Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (DDU-GKY) was launched by The Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) on Antyodaya Diwas i.e. 25th September 2014. DDU-GKY is a part of the National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM), thst aims at adding diversity to the incomes of rural poor families and cater to the career aspirations of rural youth. In fact, DDU-GKY uniquely focuses on rural youth between the age group of 15 to 35 years coming from poor families. As a part of the Skill India campaign, it has played an important role in the social and economic programs of the government like Make In India, Digital India, Smart Cities and Start-Up India, Stand-Up India campaigns. Also, over 180 million or 69% of the country’s youth population between the age group of 18 to 34 years, live in rural areas. Of these, 55 million are found with marginal or no employment. 
  • The National Policy for Skill Development & Entrepreneurship has identified a skills gap of 109.73 million in 24 key sectors by the year 2022. DDU-GKY is currently implemented in 21 States and UTs, across 568 districts, impacting youth from over 6,215 blocks covering over 690 projects with over 300 partners, in more than 330 trades from 82 industry sectors. Over 2.7 Lakh candidates have been trained and over 1.34 Lakh candidates have been placed in jobs so in the course of the last financial year. From 2012, DDU-GKY has so far committed an investment of more than INR 5,600 Crores, impacting rural youth pan-India. 

6. Rural Self Employment Training Institutes (RSETIs)

Rural Self Employment Training Institutes (RSETIs) were set up with the objective of providing necessary skill training and skill up gradation to the rural BPL youth in order to mitigate the unemployment problems. RSETIs are managed by various commercial banks with active co-operation from the Government of India and State Government. They are based on the concept RUDSETI (Rural Development and Self Employment Training Institute), a society established jointly by three agencies i.e. Syndicate Bank, Canara Bank and Sri Manjunatheswara Trust in Karnataka. Under this program, one RSETI is established in every district of the country where concerned bank is the lead bank take responsibility for creating and managing it. For this, government of India provides one - time grant assistance of upto a maximum limit of Rs. 1 crore for meeting the expenditure on construction of building and other infrastructural developments. After successful completion of the training, aspirants are provided with credit linkage assistance by the banks to start their own entrepreneurial ventures.The common minimum infrastructure of each RSETI comprises of 2-3 classrooms with toilet facilities, separate for women and physically challenged. Two workshops, two dormitories with bath facilities. Also, each RSETI offers 30 to 40 skill development programmes of short duration ranging from 1 to 6 weeks.

7. The National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP)

The National Social Assistance Programme(NSAP), came into effect in August,1995 plays a significant role in the fulfillment of the Directive Principles as mentioned in the Article 41 of the Constitution.

NSAP encompasses the following schemes:-
  1. Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS)
  2. Indira Gandhi National Widow Pension Scheme (IGNWPS)
  3. Indira Gandhi National Disability Pension Scheme (IGNDPS)
  4. National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS)
  5. Annapurna Scheme. 

8. The National Rurban Mission (NRuM)

The National Rurban Mission (NRuM) focuses on creating a a cluster of "Rurban Villages" which signifies the rural development with equity and inclusiveness without compromising with the facilities perceived to be essentially urban in nature. The main objective of the National Rurban Mission (NRuM) is to ensure economic development, enhance basic services, and create well planned Rurban clusters. Also, it aims at Bridging the rural urban divide created on the basis of economic, technological and other related facilities and services. The mission outlines 14 desirable components which are linked to developing skills and local entrepreneurship, economic activities and providing necessary infrastructural facilities.

9. Saansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY)

The Saansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY) aims to transform lives of those rural poor for whom economic development never happened and also to bring about a sense of pride, volunteerism, and self-reliance for villagers. Under this scheme, 478 and 218 Members of Parliament have identified Gram Panchayats, under Phase-II and Phase-III respectively and has developed a 35 point outcome indicator to cover the basic amenities, education, health, sanitation, livelihood, women empowerment, financial inclusion, food security, social security and e-governance to gauge the impact of SAGY in the Gram Panchayats. However, it is important to note that under this scheme, MPs will be responsible for developing the socio-economic and physical infrastructure of three villages each by 2019.

10. Mission Antyodaya

Mission Antyodaya is a convergence framework that transform lives and livelihoods of rural people. In India, about 8.88 crore households are found to be deprived and poor households as per Socio Economic Caste Census (SECC) of 2011 as measured from the perspective of multi-dimensional deprivations which includes shelterless, landless rural households headed by single women, SC/ST household or disabled member in the family. Thus, for this context, ‘Mission Antyodaya’ was launched by the government in accordance with Gram Panchayats as the basic unit for planning to ensure sustainable livelihoods. It is a State initiative for rural transformation to make a real difference based on measurable outcomes in 1,000 days. Also, Out of 5,000 rural clusters comprising of nearly 50,000 Gram Panchayats have been selected by the States purposively for implementing the 'Mission Antyodaya' Framework.

11. Gram Samridhi Evam Swachhta Pakhwada

The Central Government had conducted the ‘Gram Samridhi Evam Swachhta’ campaign from October 1 to October 15, 2018 in partnership with state governments, to give a boost to development activities in rural areas. The campaign focuses on educating villagers about hygiene and cleanliness through self-help groups, anganwadi centres and schools, and conducting training programmes.

12. Improving Accountability framework for Rural Development Programmes

The Department of Rural Development has developed a very strong and robust accountability frame work for all its programmes. Over time, efforts have been made to develop citizen centric apps like Gram Samvad, Meri Sadak, Awaas App etc. to improve the accountability to the people. In April 2017, the DAY-NRLM has launched a transaction-based MIS to capture SHG member level transactions. The system has already been rolled out in 1400 Blocks across 25 States. To assess the progress of programmes in States, the Department has introduced a system of Common Review Mission (CRM). Also, Eight states are visited by total 32 independent professionals as part of the CRM each year.

13. Use of Information and Communication Technology in Rural Development Programmes

Use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has contributed a lot in socio-economic development of rural area, especially in sectors of rural education, agriculture, health care facility, disaster and emergency response and E-governance facility. Thus, ICT has become an examined key for the development of geographically scattered rural people in developed nation and that is why it is getting popular day by day in developing nations. But, the primary cost for establishing and setting up of ICT infrastructure may be a barrier for developing nation, however its enormous usefulness for the rural people cannot be denied. Though education, agriculture, healthcare etc.

14. Common review mission and National Level Monitoring Institutions

The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) was launched in April 2005 in order to provide accessible, affordable and accountable quality health services to the poorest households in the remotest rural regions of the country. Under the NRHM, areas with unsatisfactory health indicators were classified as special focus States to ensure greatest attention but the main focus of the mission is to ensure simultaneous action on a wide range of determinants of health like water, sanitation, education, nutrition, social and gender equality. Also, Annual Common Review Mission has been one of the important monitoring mechanisms under NRHM. According to 11th report of Common Review Mission of National Health Mission (NHM), women bear uneven burden in family planning as they account for more than 93% sterlisation in the country. This is marginal improvement as compared to earlier years when women accounted for 98% of all sterilisation in the country. Furthur more, as per the Report, India has registered a record 22% reduction in Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) since 2013, which is the highest percentage decline so far when compared to all the previous reductions in MMR.

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